Ancient Rome Lesson 3 The Roman Empire
Terms to Know • Province, Colosseum, aqueduct, polytheism, arch
The Decline of the Roman Empire • Even though the empire ruled a large area, Rome was in trouble. Some leaders tried to break up estates and give land to the plebeians. The patricians fought back, and plebeian leaders were murdered. • During the next seventy-five years, Roman generals fought for power. As Rome seemed to be breaking up, a strong leader emerged; Julius Caesar.
Rise of Julius Caesar • Caesar was born into a patrician family in 100 B.C. Use both books to list Caesar’s accomplishments. You should have at least four achievements. What happened when he invaded Gaul? Use your new textbook for this answer. Caesar then marched into Italy during its time of turmoil.
Civil War and Julius Caesar • Use will find the information from your old textbook for this section. In 49 B.C. Caesar and his rebel army marched into Italy. Civil War broke out and spilled into Egypt. • Define civil war. Explain the phrase “spilled into Egypt”. Discuss. • Caesar sought help from • Cleopatra. • Who was Cleopatra?
Civil War and Caesar • Caesar returned to Italy and won control of Rome. He then pronounced himself dictator of Rome and dissolved the Roman Republic in 45 B.C. • Define dictator. Under Roman law, a dictator could only rule for 6 months; however, Caesar ruled for much longer and he ruled like a king. • Praetors were other officials. They functioned as junior consuls and later became judges.
Caesar’s Rule • In your old textbook, read the section on page 237, and list the improvements Caesar implemented in Rome. • How did the senators feel about the new dictatorship and what was their decision to do about it? Also read the section in your new textbook on page 234. • What was important about the “Ides of March”?
The Roman Republic • After Caesar’s death, the struggle for power in Rome grew; meanwhile, patricians and plebeians each tried to win control for themselves. As problems in Rome increased, conquered peoples rebelled against their Roman governors. By the centuries end, a period known as the Pax Romana, which is Latin for “Roman peace”.
The New Roman EmpireAll this information will come from the new textbook • After 14 years of civil war, the winner was the grand nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar, Octavian. He defeated some of Rome’s most experienced generals to become the next dictator of Rome. As a sign of his new power, Octavian gave himself the name Augustus, which means “honored one.” The month of August was named after him.
The Roman Empire • Under Augustus, life throughout the Roman Empire underwent great changes. Most important, his rule began the Pax Romana. • This period of peace lasted about 200 years. Goods moved freely within Rome’s far-reaching borders. Romans had bread to eat each day. Here are a few other improvements during the PaxRomana--
Beginning of Augustus’ Reign • Adopted son of Caesar, Augustus began his climb for power he shunned the senate; however, once he became emperor he worked closely with the senate so he wouldn’t see the same fate as Caesar. As a result, the people gave Augustus as much power as he wanted.
The Roman Empire • Conquered people remained free after Romans took their lands. The Romans would break down their empire into provinces; which is an area of the empire, had a Roman governor supported by an army. The Romans built a city in a new province to serve as a capital.
Provinces • Romans did not interfere or force their way of life on the conquered peoples. If the people did not start trouble, life remained problem free. The Romans: • Ran the local government, watched over people • Allowed the people to follow their own religion • Didn’t interfere with the people’s lives. As a result, people learned Roman ways, speak Latin, and worshipped Roman gods.
Architecture and Technology • Arch- a curved structure used as a support over an open space as in a doorway. • Concrete- developed an important new building material- mix of stone, sand, cement, and water. Were able to build bigger, stronger, and the multilevel floored buildings. • Aqueducts-structures that carried water over long distances. • Roads- All roads lead to Rome! All major roads did lead to Rome, so no matter what road travelers started out on, they could get to Rome.
Influence • The Colosseum- the site of contests and combats between people and between people and animals. • Gladiators- people who fought to the death. Were often slaves, men or women, enjoyed the fame and fortune made by fighting. • What was the term said by the gladiators to Caesar? • Circuses- arenas (show became known as circuses) were violent fights, execution of criminals, and clowns would even entertain. • Draw the image of the Roman Aqueduct on page 245 in your new textbook.
Roman Citizens/Life • In Rome’s day, nothing equaled its power and influence. A million people lived in the city and people enjoyed the benefits living as a Roman citizen. • To be counted as a Roman citizen, men registered for the census- an official count of people living in Rome. Roman men declared their family, slaves, and wealth to authorities at census time.
Roman Life • Census- If a man did not register, he ran the risk of losing his property or sold into slavery. Women, girls, slaves, and those who were freed from slavery were not counted as citizens. • All throughout the Roman Empire people were considered citizens, but the citizens in the city of Rome had a special love for the city.
Social Classes/Poor • Rich- elegant homes in the city and in the country called villas. Many served extravagant meals, entertainment- musicals, dancers, and performers. • Poor/Jobless- lived in poorly built, rundown housing, apartments with no running water, toilets, or kitchens. Rubbish and human waste was dumped in the streets. • They also received handouts from the government for wheat to make bread. If the wheat was bad or late, the poor often rioted.
Roman LifeRoman Household • The head of the Roman household is the paterfamilias; which means father of the family. This could be great- grandfather, grandfather, or father. • The family included everyone in the household below the rank of paterfamilias: women, children, and slaves. They all usually lived in one house and/or shared in family farms.
Slaves • Slavery was common in Rome. Almost every rich family had slaves and even poor people had slaves. • Few owners paid their slaves • Many took good care of their slaves. • Some moved up in the family’s household. • Some slaves lived short, hard lives. • Slept in chains at night. Worked in copper, tin, and iron mines, and some trained as rowers on ships, gladiators, and horseworkers.