Objectives: • State why listening is important • Distinguish hearing from listening • Provide various meanings of listening • Describe the nature and stages of the listening process • Explain the purposes of listening • Identify the barriers to effective listening • Suggest ways to improve listening • Identify ways to give and receive feedback • Recognize various propaganda techniques
1 A. selfishB. interestingC. generous
2 A. comicalB. honestC. ungrateful
3 A. spoiledB. cleverC. easygoing
4 A. punctualB. blandC. skeptical
5 A. bigmouthB. depressingC. pushy
6 A. talentedB. brilliantC. inconsiderate
7 A. sloppyB. frankC. helpless
8 A. childishB. nastyC. cultured
9 A. creativeB. timidC. narrow-minded
10 A. forgetfulB. ambitiousC. disorganized
IMPORTANCE of LISTENING • Most basic of the four major areas of language development • Listening is the first language skill which we develop – S. Lundsteen (Wolvin, 1988) • As children, we listen before we speak, we speak before we read and read before we write.
Listening Facts Studies Say: Mode of Comm. Formal Years of Training % of Time We Use the Mode Writing 12 years 10% Reading 6-8 years 15% Speaking 1-2 years 30% Listening 0-very few hours 45%
Listening Facts • Confident people tend to listen to content better than unconfident people. • How much of what we know have we learned by listening? • What percentage of the time are we distracted, preoccupied or forgetful? • How much do we usually recall immediately after we listen to someone talk? • How much to we recall after 48 hours? 85% 75% 50% 25%
Quick Facts about Listening • What percentage of the time do we spend listening? • What percentage of the population had had formal educational experience with listening? 45% Less than 2% From the International Listening Association
Hearing… is the physiological process of receiving aural and visual stimuli. It begins when the listener takes in the sound of the speaker’s voice. It is the passive phase of speech reception since we can hear without effort. Good hearing is important to listening because hearing provides the raw material on which the listening process operates. Good hearing though is not synonymous to good listening. (Clevenger, 1971)
Listening… is more than hearing. It is the described as the active phase of speech reception, a physiological process guided and controlled by the habits, attitudes, and conscious intentions of the listener. He chooses from those complex stimuli certain information that will be useful in formulating his response. These distinctions are helpful in clarifying the meaning of listening.
Definitions of Listening… • If “hearing is the apprehension (to become aware of through the senses) of sound and listening is the comprehension (to embrace or understand a thing) of aural symbols, then, listening can be more accurately defined as “the attachment of meaning to aural symbols.” • (Nichols, 1954)
Definitions of Listening… • A term for a whole group of mental processes which enable us to interpret the meaning of messages. It is a cognitive process that involves perception, comprehension, and other mental processes. • (Baird and Knower, 1968)
Definitions of Listening… • As a process of receiving, attending to and assigning meaning to aural stimuli. • (Wolvin, 1988)
Definitions of Listening… • “…is the combination of what we hear, what we understand, and what we remember.” • (Brooks, 1993)
11. A. Sorry, it's not mine. B. Yes, please. C. Yes, I wish you would.
12. A. That's fine. B. I promise to do it. C. No kidding.
13. A. Yes. Thanks for offering. B. No way. You still owe me $15. C. I'm glad for you.
14. A. Yes, you may. B. Sure. Go ahead. C. Sorry, I can't today.
15. A. I'm glad you think so. B. You are sure. C. I'd be glad to.
16. A. Sorry, I'll do it right now. B. Yes. I'll tell him you called. C. You decide.
17. A. Yes. You can keep it. B. Yeah. I'll bring it on Monday. C. Sure. How much is it?
18. A. Okay. What time? B. Yes, you may go. C. No. You can drop it.
The Nature of Listening… Listening is a dynamic, transactional process. It involves both the speaker and the listener as they send and receive messages. Therefore, it is THEIR responsibility to make sure that messages originating from the source must be understood, interpreted, and evaluated by the receiver.
The Nature of Listening… 2. Listening is an active process not a passive one. DeVito (1982) stresses that listening does not just happen; you have to make it happen. It demands physical energy which the listener needs so that he can focus on the message cues. It requires mental energy so the listener can actively participate as decoder of the speaker’s messages as well as encoder of his return messages or feedback.
The Nature of Listening… 3. Listening is a complex process. Hearing Identifying and Recognizing Auding auditory acuity auditory analysis note sequencing masking mental reorganization identification of words forming sensory impressions SPEECH SOUNDS MEANING auditory fatigue association appreciation Brooks Listening Model
The Stages of Listening… • HEARING • IDENTIFYING and RECOGNIZING • AUDING
The Stages of Listening… • HEARING • auditory acuity – ability of the ear to respond to various frequencies or tones at various intensities, referred to as levels of loudness • Human speech frequencies range from 250 to 4,000 cycles per second although the critical range of auditory acuity is 1000 and 2500 cycles per second.
The Stages of Listening… • HEARING • masking – occurs when the background noise received by the ear falls within the same frequency range as the message one is intending to receive. • Competing conversation often “masks” the intended oral message. Meanwhile, “white noise” results when the competing or extraneous sound are composed of all frequencies.
The Stages of Listening… • HEARING • auditory fatigue - results from continuous exposure to sounds of certain frequencies
The Stages of Listening… • IDENTIFYING and RECOGNIZING • auditory analysis – process of comparing the sounds that are heard with the ones that are familiar to the listener; the sounds are recognized according to their likenesses and differences • mental reorganization – listener uses a system that will help him/her retain and structure the incoming sounds
The Stages of Listening… • IDENTIFYING and RECOGNIZING • association – upon hearing to certain sounds, a listener already ‘links’ these sounds with previous experiences, memories, and backgrounds
The Stages of Listening… • AUDING – listener assimilates the words and responds to them with understanding and feeling • indexing – arranging the listening material according to importance • making comparisons
The Stages of Listening… • AUDING • noting sequence – arranging the material according to time, space, position, or some other relationship • forming sensory impressions – translating the material to sensory images • Appreciating – responding to the “aesthetic nature of the message”
Purposes in Listening… Appreciative listening – listening for pleasure or enjoyment Empathic listening – listening to provide emotional support Comprehensive listening – listening to derive information, facts, ideas, and principles Critical listening – listening to make an evaluation in order to make an intellectual judgment, to criticize, to evaluate ideas of others
Barriers to Effective Listening… • Hastily branding the subject as uninteresting or irrelevant. • SUGGESTION: Seek ways to make the subject interesting and useful to you. • Focusing attention on appearance or delivery. • SUGGESTION: Judge content NOT delivery. • Avoiding difficult and unpleasant material. • SUGGESTION: Practice listening in a wide variety of situations.
Barriers to Effective Listening… • Getting over stimulated by what the speaker’s say. • SUGGESTION: Keep your emotions in check. • Listening primarily for facts. • SUGGESTION: Focus on ideas.
Barriers to Effective Listening… • Trying to outline everything that the speaker says. • Key-word outline • Precis writing or precis method • Fact versus principle • Mapping • Annotation method • Cornell System (Walter Paule) • Becoming a better note-taker will surely help you become a better listener.
Barriers to Effective Listening… 7) Faking attention. SUGGESTION: Don’t pretend to listen. 8) Creating or yielding easily to distractions. SUGGESTION: Fight or resist distraction. 9) Engaging in “private planning”. SUGGESTION: Set aside unrelated personal problems or concerns. 10) Wasting the advantages f thought speed. SUGGESTION: Capitalize on the advantages of thought speed.
Guides to Effective Listening… • Listen actively. • Listen with empathy. Feel what the speaker feels. • Listen for total meaning. • Listen with an open mind. • Give effective feedback. Feedback is the response or reaction (overt and covert) of the listener as perceived by the source in the communication transaction. • Effective feedback is immediate, honest, appropriate, clear, and informative. • (6) Listen critically.