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Listening

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  1. Listening Tonja L. Root, Ed.D. Early Childhood & Reading Education Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA 31698

  2. Listening Process • “The process by which spoken language is converted to meaning in the mind” (Lundsteen, 1979, p.1). Root, VSU

  3. Listening Process Step 1: Receiving • The listener receives the aural stimuli, or aural & visual stimuli presented by the speaker. Root, VSU

  4. Listening Process Step 2: Attending • Listener focuses on selected stimuli while ignoring distracting stimuli. • “Paying attention” component • Not necessarily related to physical behaviors Root, VSU

  5. Listening Process Step 3: Assigning Meaning • Listener understands the speaker’s message. • Uses assimilation & accomo-dation to fit the message into their existing cognitive structures or to create new structures. Root, VSU

  6. Purposes for Listening • Discriminative: to distinguish sounds & develop a sensitivity to nonverbal communication • Comprehensive: to understand a message; required in instruction • Critical: to comprehend & evaluate a message; to detect propaganda devices & persuasive language Root, VSU

  7. Comprehensive Listening Strategies:Forming pictures or mental images/ Imagery strategy • Students may form mental images or pictures while listening to messages which include visual descriptions and/or details. Root, VSU

  8. Comprehensive Listening Strategies:Monitoring • Students may ask themselves questions to monitor their listening: • "Why am I listening?" • "What does this mean (in my own words or thoughts)?" • "Does this information make sense?" • "How can I use this information?" • "What will I have to do with this information?" Root, VSU

  9. Comprehensive Listening Strategies:Asking Questions • Students may ask the speaker questions to clarify meaning, deepen their understanding, and/or reduce/eliminate confusion. Root, VSU

  10. Comprehensive Listening Strategies:Discovering the Plan • Ability to recognize the organizational plan of the speaker, & to use the plan to understand & remember the message. • Teach each organizational pattern separately before requiring students both to identify the correct pattern & to apply the pattern to their listening. • Incorporating graphic organizers for each of the organizational patterns allows an auditory message to become more visual. Root, VSU

  11. Comprehensive Listening Strategies:Discovering the Plan • Note-taking: Students may apply knowledge of organizational plans & use graphic organizers to assist with note-taking. • Organizational Patterns: • Categorization • Description • Sequence • Comparison & contrast • Cause & effect • Problem & solution Root, VSU

  12. Lesson Plan Guidelines • General Information • Title of Lesson: Efferent Listening: Note-taking during __________ • Primary Learning Outcome(s) • Related QCC Standard(s) • Materials and Equipment • Technology Connection Root, VSU

  13. Procedures: Step One: Introduction Comprehensive/Efferent Listening • Do something that emphasizes the importance and/or use of the strategy to capture students' attention. • If the strategy is similar to another listening or reading strategy previously taught, then review that strategy (i.e., activate prior knowledge &/or experiences). List questions. • Let them know that they will be using the strategy while they are listening during this lesson. Root, VSU

  14. Procedures: Step Two: Teaching- 1. Content Comprehensive/Efferent Listening • Introduce & explain the listening process. • Introduce & explain the strategy. • Model the strategy: • Listen to a tape or someone reading a passage of information; verbalize your thoughts while applying the strategy; and do whatever you are going to require your students to do. Root, VSU

  15. Procedures: Step Two: 2. Check understanding Comprehensive/Efferent Listening • Ask the students questions. • What is the listening process? • What are we using to help us remember to what we are listening? • When will we use this strategy? Root, VSU

  16. Procedures: Step Two: 3a. Practice &FeedbackComprehensive/Efferent Listening • Read a passage to your students, play a tape, and/or present part of a mini-lesson on some new information. • The information must be new to your students, or you will not know whether the students applied the listening strategy effectively or whether they recalled previously learned information. Root, VSU

  17. Procedures: Step Two: 3a. Practice &FeedbackComprehensive/Efferent Listening • As an entire class (large group), share, discuss, & record information in the same form as you are going to require your students to do & as you modeled during instruction. • Clarify misunderstandings & model for them the application of the strategy to their listening. Root, VSU

  18. Procedures: Step Two: 3b. Practice &FeedbackComprehensive/Efferent Listening • Read another passage to your students, play a tape, &/or present part of a mini-lesson on some new information. • Information must be new, or you will not know if the students applied the strategy effectively or if they recalled previously learned information. • In small groups (about 4), have students share, discuss, & record information in the same form as during instruction & Step Two: Teaching-3a (Practice & Feedback). Root, VSU

  19. Procedures:Step Three: ClosureComprehensive/Efferent Listening • Explain connections among lesson parts. • Review the listening process. • Summarize the strategy. • Give situations in which its use would be appropriate. • Summarize the content learned, as related to the primary learning outcome. Root, VSU

  20. Procedures:Step Four: AssessingComprehensive/Efferent Listening • Read another passage to your students, play a tape, and/or present part of a mini-lesson on some new information. • Information must be new to your students. • Individually, have students record information in the same form as you modeled during instruction and guided practice & they practiced in small groups during independent practice. Root, VSU

  21. Children's Literature Related to Listening • Balian, L. (1972). The aminal. New York: Abingdon Press. • Keats, E.J. (1962). The snowy day. New York: Viking. • Lester, H. (1995). Listen Buddy. New York: Trumpet. • Pfeffer, W. (1999). Sounds all around. New York: Scholastic. Root, VSU

  22. Children's Literature Related to Listening (cont.) • Showers, P. (1990). Ears are for hearing. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Junior Books. • Showers, P. (1961). The listening walk. New York: HarperCollins. • Stanley, D. (1983). The conversation club. New York: Macmillan. • Wells, R. (1973). Noisy Nora. New York: Dial Press. Root, VSU

  23. Root, VSU