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LISTENING . Visuals can be purchased at Content based on Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking. What are the origins of the Chinese symbol for "listen"? . The answer: Ear (耳朵) , eye (眼睛), and heart (心脏). . Listening is Different from Hearing.

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Visuals can be purchased at

Content based on Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking

Listening and Public Speaking

what are the origins of the chinese symbol for listen
What are the origins of the Chinese symbol for "listen"?
  • The answer: Ear (耳朵) , eye (眼睛), and heart (心脏).

Listening and Public Speaking

listening is different from hearing
Listening is Different from Hearing.
  • Listening is an involved reception process--a complex cognitive process--that uses multiple aspects of your brain and your skills.
  • Listening is important.

Listening and Public Speaking

managers are required to listen up to 60 of the workday brownell 2000
Managers are required to listen up to 60% of the workday (Brownell, 2000).
  • "The most important communication skill -- listening -- is also the hardest to master" (Busey, 2000).
  • Most Americans spend the majority of their communication time listening, but use only 25 percent of their innate ability to listen" (Wolvin, Berko, & Wolvin, 2000).

Listening and Public Speaking

Attending is when you decide to listen or pay attention to something in particular.

60 visual cues a minute.

Attention in short term memory lasts less than 1 minute.

" The brain is so capable and so underused that the typical communication event leaves the brain "undernourished, if not starved" (Jensen, 2000, pp. 12-13).


Listening and Public Speaking

5 minute write or talk
5 Minute Write or Talk
  • Right now:
  • 1. What is happening in the rest of the environment?2. What else is going on in your mind? 3. What does the other person mean?4. What do you feel able to listen to?

Listening and Public Speaking

in listening after attention comes elaboration
In listening, after attention comes Elaboration
  • Elaboration is sense-making or meaning-making.

Listening and Public Speaking

the next step in listening is response
Provide meaningful feedback to speaker.

What meaningful feedback are you sending right now?

Click here to learn more about giving feedback

The next step in listening isResponse

Listening and Public Speaking

a key element in listening is memory
A key element in listening isMemory
  • Remembering is the process of retaining the information, impression, and experience that you processed.
  • Good nutrition, water, and sleep as essential
  • Once processed in your short term memory, may store information in long term memory for later recall.

Listening and Public Speaking

barriers to effective public listening
Barriers to Effective Public Listening
  • Too Much Information
  • Distractions
  • Day Dreaming
  • Biases

Listening and Public Speaking

interact as a listener
Interact as a listener
  • Ask questions where appropriate or rephrase the speaker's idea.
  • Respond as a listener
  • Respond with your body.
  • Avoid reacting to words that generate strong emotions.
  • Try not to jump to conclusions, hear the whole message.

Listening and Public Speaking

focus on the speaker
Focus on the speaker.
  • Take notes and review notes.
  • Sit near the front and next to someone you don't know.

Listening and Public Speaking

practice listening more effectively
Practice listening more effectively.
  • Look beyond speaker’s distracting mannerisms.
  • Motivate yourself.
  • Patience helps.

Listening and Public Speaking

improve your listening skills
Improve Your Listening Skills:
  • Focus on message
  • Think about the message.
  • Be actively engaged in listening.

Listening and Public Speaking

yes but
Yes, but
  • "Whenever you respond to someone with 'Yes, but ...,' it's a sure sign you haven't listened.
  • Before you state your response, make an effort to paraphrase what the other has said ('So what I hear you saying is ...') or to identify the feelings behind what the other said ('You must be so proud').
  • When people feel listened to, they're more likely to listen to you in return.
  • That creates a connection that creates understanding, improves relationships and capitalizes on opportunities" (Busey, 2000, p. 25)

Listening and Public Speaking

establish listening goals
Establish Listening Goals
  • At the basic level, listeners listen for discrimination, to distinguish auditory or visual cues.
  • At a second level, we listen for comprehension of information.
  • At a higher order of listening, we listen for therapeutic purposes to provide a sounding board for a friend, colleague, or family member who has a problem they need to vent.
  • Another higher order level of listening is critical listening, which is listening to assess the message in order to decide whether to accept or reject it.

Listening and Public Speaking

  • The other level of higher order listening is listening for appreciation.
  • Toasts and tributes, for example, are designed to help you appreciate the communication experience.

Listening and Public Speaking

listen ethically
Listen Ethically
  • a. Determine the speaker's motivational appeals.
  • b. Determine the assumptions on the part of the speaker.
  • c. Consider the speaker's arguments and evidence.

Listening and Public Speaking

avoid poor reasoning
Avoid Poor Reasoning
  • An ad hominem is when the speaker attacks the person rather than the idea.
  • Bandwagon technique is when the speaker argues that everyone does it, so you should too.
  • A nonsequitor is when you move from one idea to an unrelated idea while acting as if the two are somehow relevant to each other.
  • A hasty generalization is when too few or atypical examples are used to support the conclusion.
  • Either-or fallacy is when the speaker leads you to believe there are only two choices, when in fact there may be many.
  • Straw man (woman) is when the speaker puts up a false issue and refutes it.
  • A red herring is when the speaker throws out an irrelevant issue as a distraction.

Listening and Public Speaking

how can you listen to and analyze speaker appeals



















Sexual attraction

How Can You Listen to and Analyze Speaker Appeals?

Listening and Public Speaking

5 minute talk or write
5 Minute Talk or Write

Do you agree?

  • Poor audience behavior is linked to a general increase in rudeness among US Americans.
  • Poor audience behavior is caused by shortened attention span due to over-stimulation, hurry, and stress.
  • Poor audience behavior is caused by our sound bite society where an entire message must be conveyed metaphorically in an 8-second phrase that can shape an entire campaign or program.

Listening and Public Speaking

end lecture
End Lecture

Listening and Public Speaking


5 Minute Write or TalkResearch says that one of the best ways to improve your public speaking is by practice, practice, practice. What skills do you learn in these types of assignments?

  • Impromptu.
  • Telling a story.
  • Giving a toast.
  • Giving a group presentation.
  • Presenting an extemporaneous speech.
  • Watching yourself speak on videotape.

Listening and Public Speaking

speech and audience with sunglasses
Speech and Audience with Sunglasses
  • Wear sunglasses while you give an impromptu speech.
  • Learning speakers sometimes find it easier to talk when they don't have or feel direct eye contact. Do you?
  • Why is eye contact from the speaker and audience important?
  • After the speeches, talk about how you felt wearing sunglasses while talking and listening.

Listening and Public Speaking