Listening Chapter 3
Listening: A CHOICE • Hearing comes naturally. We all HEAR. • Listening is a learned social skill. You have to DECIDE to do it. • Brainstorm: • 1 time when you were hearing someone but not listening to them • 1 time when you forced yourself to actually listen even though you really didn’t want to • 1 time when someone called you out on not listening to him or her
The Listening Process: 5 Steps 1: Hearing—you select some sounds to focus on and tune out others. 2: Interpreting—you decode the signals and understand the sensory input (making sense of what you hear based on what you already know) Fact: you can process almost 3 times more words per minute than people speak. 3: Evaluating—you judge the worth or importance of something (figuring out the speakers intent based on fact & opinion).
The Listening Process: 5 Steps (Cont.) • 4: Remembering—NOT objective. You remember what you understood based on what you perceived from what was said. • 5: Responding—you react to the speaker by sending cues. The listener sends feedback to the speaker to clarify what was heard or to take part in the conversation. • PRACTICE—take 5 minutes to tell your neighbor what you did this weekend. When it is your turn to listen, record your thought process for each of the 5 steps of listening.
Recipe for Listening: 5 Ingredients • It is important to listen for ALL 5 of the following elements when having a conversation with someone in order to fully understand him or her. • 1: Information—facts or instructions • 2: Emotion—determine what mindset the speaker has. Are they insecure or nervous? • 3: Attitude—distinguish fact from opinion • 4: Goals and Hidden Agendas—there may be messages that are not expressed directly • 5: Thoughts, Ideas, and Opinions—pay attention to omissions and nonverbal symbols, these will reveal opinions
Interview Critique: Picking out the Ingredients • Information: What is the interviewee telling you? • Emotion: Is he or she happy? Sad? Angry? Upset? WHY? • Attitude: What are the facts? What is his or her position? • Goals and Hidden Agendas: Is there a theme going on behind the words? • Thoughts, Ideas, and Opinions: What verbal and nonverbal symbols does the interviewee use to express him or herself?
ACTIVITY: Watch Interviews • George W. Bush & Kanye West • Evaluate the interview for the 5 ingredients in the recipe for listening.
Listening Barriers: 4 Types • 1: External Barriers—environmental hindrances to listening • Noises—can overpower message • Other Stimuli—other senses reacting to events • Information Overload—we tune out when there is too much coming at us • 2: Listener Barriers—psychological blocks to effective listening • Boredom *Opinionatedness • Laziness *Prejudice • Waiting to speak *Lack of interest
Listening Barriers: 4 Types (Cont.) • 3: Speaker Barriers—obstacles to listening that originate with the speaker • Appearance *Credibility—believability • Manner *Message • Power • 4: Cultural Barriers—learned responses that predispose one to see things a particular way • Prejudice *Nonverbal communication • Speaking style *Accents • Source credibility
ACTIVITY: Identifying Listener Barriers • List 7 examples of situations when you have been affected by listener barriers (list examples from home, school, work, and social situations). • Classify each situation as one or more of the six listener barriers. • Boredom, laziness, waiting to speak, opinionatedness, prejudice, lack of interest • Where did most listener barriers occur? Which types were most common?
Types of Listening: 3 Types 1: Active Listening—listening for meaning 2: Informational Listening—listening for content and attempting to identify the speaker’s purpose, main ideas, and supporting details 3: Critical Listening—examining information or persuasive messages and drawing conclusions SAY WHAT?!
ACTIVITY! • Brainstorm 2 different places or situations you may use or have used each type of listening. • (2) Active Listening • (2) Informational Listening • (2) Critical Listening • Be prepared to share at least one example with the class and justify why it is that type of listening. (HINT: refer back to your definitions!)
(1) Active Listening: In-depth • There are two types of active listening. • 1: Emphatic Listening– listening to discern another person’s feelings and emotions • You attempt to feel the speaker’s feelings and to share his or her mood. • 2: Creative Listening– receiving another’s ideas but using them to generate one’s own creative ideas • You use creative listening in brainstorming sessions by building off of other’s ideas.
(1) Active Listening Process: 5 Steps • 1: Find and organize the speaker’s main ideas. • Use logic! • 2: Mentally summarize what the speaker is saying. • Put a message into your own words! • 3: Echo the speaker’s meaning. • Repeat what you think you heard! • 4: Echo the speaker’s expressed or implied feelings • Watch your perceptions! • 5: Ask questions to receive further clarification. • Show interest and support!
(1) ACTIVITY! Active listening in tough conversations • Role-Play: • Speaker— • BE DIFFICULT! BE A PAIN! • Listener— • Attempt to actively listen and empathize/sympathize with the speaker. • Pay attention to emotions and ideas. • Observers— • Is the active listener being successful in picking up on the emotions and concerns of the speaker?
(2) Informational Listening: In-depth • When informational listening is important: • Classroom settings • Work training sessions • Receiving directions • Traveling • Interviews • How to improve understanding when practicing informational listening: • Take good notes!
(2) Informational Listening: ACTIVITY • When your informational listening skills FAIL you: • Brainstorm at least 3 times in your life when you have failed in the informational listening department. What did you do to fix it? • Turn & Talk: share your fails with your neighbor and compare your situations.
(3) Critical Listening: In-depth • Pay attention to the following 5 areas when listening critically: • 1: Source Credibility– who is speaking, and how believable is he or she? • 2: Attitude—is the speaker respectful or condescending to the listener? • 3: Speaker’s Goal—why is the speaker trying to persuade me? Is he or she repeating anything? • 4: Content—What is the main idea? What evidence is presented? Is the conclusion logical? • 5: Reasoning—are the ideas presented well-supported?
(3) Critical Listening: Faulty Reasoning Inductive Reasoning: identifying facts and linking them together to support a specific conclusion Logical Fallacies: false methods of reasoning
(3) Critical Listening: 7 Common Logical Fallacies • 1: Begging the Question: speakers assume the truth or falsity of a statement without supplying proof. • 2: Card Stacking: speakers select only the evidence and arguments for the side that they support. • 3: False Premises: speakers begin with false assumptions that are assumed to be true. • 4: Glittering Generalities: speakers use vague or general words or phrases that express an attitude or idea that has popular support.
(3) Critical Listening: 7 Common Logical Fallacies • 5: False Generalizations: speakers don’t have enough evidence to support a broad conclusion, or they selectively leave out details and come to a quick conclusion. • 6: Non Sequitur: speakers assert something that doesn’t follow logically or that deals with a completely different subject. • 7: Testimonial: speakers use an authority or a well-known person to endorse a particular subject or position to gain the listener’s approval.
ACTVITY! Research. • Research one of the 7 common logical fallacies. • In your presentation to the class you will… • present the definition (same or reworded) • present at least one example that you found • each person must talk at least once
(3) Critical Listening: 7 Propaganda Techniques Propaganda: a form of persuasion that discourages listeners from making an independent choice by stating opinions as though they are accepted truths.
(3) Critical Listening: 7 Propaganda Techniques • 1: Transfer: makes an illogical connection between unrelated things • 2: Bandwagon: encourages listeners to join a group that favors a particular person, product, or idea because it is popular • 3: Name Calling: uses a negative term to refer to a group or an idea without providing evidence or proof • 4: Loaded Words: uses language that evokes strong feelings and attitudes in the listener to sway an argument
(3) Critical Listening: 7 Propaganda Techniques 5: Emotional Appeals: assumes that the listener shares the emotional responses of the speaker 6: Stereotypes: applies preconceived notions to a person based on his or her membership in a group 7: Either/Or: poses arguments between two opposite choices, failing to take into account other possibilities