Ancient Rome Rise, Government, Fall
Rome • Founded in 753 BCE by Romulus and Remus • Built on 7 hills along the curve of the Tiber River on the Italian Peninsula • First Settlers between 1000-500 BCE • Latins settled central Italy, Greeks to the South, and Etruscans to the North • 600BCE- Etruscan king became King of Rome with a 500 sq mile empire • Built massive temples, THE FORUM- the home of Roman politics • Tarquin the Proud- a horrible king, caused people to want a new government
The Republic Expands • Rome’s empire would not be successful without its powerful military. • Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with justice requiring the conquered people to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers to the Roman army. • In return, Rome let them keep their own customs and even game some full citizenship. This led to many of the conquered lands remaining loyal to Rome. • The Romans united their kingdom through a system of roads
Wars with Carthage • Roman expansion brought it in contact with Carthage, a city state on the northern coast of Africa, and conflict was inevitable • Rome waged 3 wars against Carthage called the Punic Wars
FIRST PUNIC WAR- was largely a naval battle over the Straits of Mesina and Rome was able to defeat Carthage to win Siciliy, Corsica, and Sardina • SECOND PUNIC WAR- the Carthaginians sought revenge and sent their most powerful general Hannibal through France and over the Alps into Italy to surprise the Romans • The Carthaginians failed to capture Rome and the Romans sent an army to attack and defeat Carthage • THIRD PUNIC WARS- Rome wanted revenge for Hannibal’s destruction of Rome and so they completely destroyed Carthage and enslaved their entire population
Life in Imperial Rome • All social classes enjoyed public entertainment like the CIRCUSES where chariot races took place or the gladiator contests • They were paid for with taxes and were used to pacify the restless mobs. • The COLOSSEUM was built from 72-80CE by Roman Emperors Vespasian and Titus • Romans placed great value on education and literacy with parents educating their children in their homes • Romans absorbed many ideas from the Greeks including literature, mythology, philosophy, and science • Many homes had mosaics or pictures from chips of stone or glass
Plebians • Nearly 1 million Romans lived in crowded three- or four-story apartment buildings • Fire a constant threat • Torches used for light • Charcoal used for cooking • To keep poor from rebelling • Free food, public entertainment offered • Two things interested public—bread, circuses • Civil Laws: carried into Modern Day – codes of laws/ethics
Public Works • Romans built immense temples, palaces, and stadiums to show the power and dignity of Rome • The PANTHEON was a temple to all the Roman gods. • Romans excelled in ENGINEERING or the application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines such as roads, bridges, and harbors throughout the empire. • AQUEDUCTS- were bridge like stone structures that brought water from the hills into Roman cities • Another part of Rome’s legacy was LATIN- French, Spanish, and Italian al get their roots from Latin. (ROMANCE languages--- ROME)
Foundations of the Roman Republic • When the Romans were able to throw out their king, they established a new type of government called a REPUBLIC, in which elected officials formed the SENATE and governed the state. • In the early days a few aristocratic families, known as PATRICIANS, elected officials amongst themselves gaining power through financial, social, or legal support to lower ranking families in exchange for political backing. • The common people, or PLEBIANS, challenged the Patricians for power.
The TWELVE TABLETS OF LAW was Rome’s first written law code, displayed in the public forum, that allowed Plebeians to appeal judgements • These laws allowed for checks and balances on the government • Working together, the Patricians and the Plebeians created an unwritten CONSITUTION, or political structure, that broke the government into 3 parts • The SENATE- or a body of 300 members that advised elected officials, controlled public finances, and handled all foreign relations • ASSEMBLIES AND TRIBUNES - in which all citizens voted on laws and elected officials • CONSULS- 2 elected leaders of the senate who put the law into practice, governed daily affairs, and acted as judges and priests. Limited to one year terms, and they could veto each other
Tensions in the Roman Empire • After expanding their massive empire a revolution grew amongst the people between the various classes of Roman society • Two patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were the first to attempt reforms hoping to distribute land to poor landless farmers, but they were unable to solve Rome’s problems • Julius Caesar came to dominate Roman politics with two others in the FIRST TRIUMVIRATE, a group of three persons with equal power. • After the death of one of the Triumvirate, Caesar forced the senate to make him dictator but kept the Senate and other features of the republic. • While the leader of Rome, he reformed society by giving jobs to the unemployed through public work projects, organizing the empire into provinces, and granting citizenship to more people. • A group of senators led by BRUTUS AND CASSIUS feared Caesar would make himself king and assassinated him, plunging Rome into a new civil war
After Julius Caesar • The SECOND TRIUMVIRATE was led by Mark Antony, Octavian, and Marcus Lepidus. They divided up the empire. • When the civil war broke out, Octavian defeated Mark Antony and his ally Queen Cleopatra of Egypt at the battle of Actium. • With Octavian the lone ruler of Rome the REPUBLIC was officially over and the new Roman political era began. • Octavian took the title of Augustus, or the Exalted One, and exercised absolute power laying the foundation for a stable government. • This period started the PAX ROMANA, a period in which Rome was at peace. • During the PAX ROMANA, laws united the Empire, trade flourished, and people moved easily, spreading ideas and knowledge
Christianity • Rome conquered Judea, where more Jews lived, and allowed the Jews to keep their religion • A new religion, CHRISTIANITY, was founded by a Jew named Jesus. • The events recorded in the New Testament of the Bible tell us about Jesus’ life and the spread of Christianity after his death and resurrection. • Jesus was called the Messiah- the promised deliverer • Called the Son of God- he performed many miracles, taught about God in stories, and brought salvation (eternal life) through faith. • Jesus was condemned and crucified by the Romans who thought he was revolutionary.
Fall of Rome • As the PAX ROMANA ended political and economic turmoil increased within the Roman Empire • Many Emperors only ruled for a few months or years until they were over thrown or killed • Taxes put a heavy burden on people and small farmers • DIOCIETIAN set out to restore order by dividing the empire into two parts and appointing a co-emperor to rule the other half • He attempted to slow inflation, or the rapid rise of prices, by fixing prices • He focused on the military and using taxes for defense and the economy • CONSTANTINE took the throne and attempted to continue the reforms • Granted religious tolerance to Christians which encouraged its growth • Built a new capital in CONSTANTINOPLE in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire leading to a decline of the western half
Rome faced many attacks from GERMANIC people to the North as well as the HUNS led by ATILLA in the West- attacks eventually led to the fall of the western portion of the Roman Empire, the Eastern portion eventually becomes known as the BYZANTINE EMPIRE