Khedivate(1805–1882) British occupation(1882–1922) Kingdom of Egypt(1922–1953) Republic of Egypt(1953–present)
Statue of Saladin in Damascus. Ayyubids, 1171–1341 Ṣalāḥ ad-DīnYūsufibnAyyūb (c. 1138 — March 4, 1193), Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Bahri dynasty or BahriyyaMamluks, 1250 to 1382 Ilkhanate in 1256–1353
Burji dynastyruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517, conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
Colonel Ahmed Urabi Arabi Rebellion in Egypt 1882 Battle of Tel el-Kebir, 1882
Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer British controller-general in Egypt during 1879 and later agent and consul-general in Egypt from 1883 to 1907 "Delegation Party" SaadZaghloul prime minister of Egypt from 26, January 1924 to 24, November 1924 Kingdom was created in 1922 when the British government released Egypt from the Protectorate, in place since 1914. Sultan Fuad I became the first king of the new state.
Fuad I of Egypt r. 9 October 1917 – 28 April 1936 Wafd Party Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936
Mustapha el-Nahas Pasha pictured in 1936 signing the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty
Economy and Society to 1945 • 1850-1920s: Export economy • 1920s-1950s: import substitution (produce locally goods previously imported) • Bank Misr= landowners and merchants invest in industrialization • Tariff reform, 1930 • WWII stimulus • Masses: 1914 90%of landowners with only 25% land • Income: £E12.4 (1914) to £E8 (1937) • 1897: 10 million people – 1947: 19 million people (no new lands) • 1950s-1970s: planned development • 1970s-present: liberalization of the economy
Farouk I of Egypt 28 April 1936 – 26 July 1952 Sir Miles Lampson, 1st Baron Killearn High Commissioner for Egypt and the Sudan, 1934-36 British Ambassador to Egypt and High Commissioner for the Sudan, 1936-46
HM King Farouk hoisting the Egyptian flag on Saladdin's Citadel as the British evacuate Cairo, July 4, 1946
formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, 1945 The Arab League currently has 22 members and four observers. 2006, Venezuela was accepted as an observer, and India in 2007. 1945, AbdelrahmanAzzam Pasha flanked by King Abd al-Aziz al-Saud of Saudi Arabia and King Farouk of Egypt at Cairo's Monasterli Palace Brazil in particular having nearly twice the Lebanese population of Lebanon itself
Map showing the Arab League members colored by the decade of joining. 1940's, 1950's, 1960's, 1970's. The Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
HM King Farouk I dressed as Admiral of Egypt exiting the RaselTin Royal Palace on July 26th 1952
General Muhammad Naguib GamalAbd al-Nasser
First Years, 1952-1956 • Evacuation of British from the Canal Zone • Jan. 1953 abolish Wafd and Ikhwan • Jun. 1953 monarchy formally abolished and republic declared • NATO, SEATO and the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact (1955)
Nasser signing unity pact with Syrian president Shukri al-Quwatli, forming the United Arab Republic, February 1958 28 September 1961, Syrian army units in Damascus rose against the UAR and declared Syria's independence
Nasser's Domestic Policies October 1961, Nasser embarked on a major nationalization program Arab Socialist Union was founded in Egypt in December 1962 Insurance companies, many large shipping companies, major heavy industries and major basic industries were converted to public control. Land reforms saw the maximum area of private land ownership successively reduced. 90% top rate of income tax was levied on income over ten thousand Egyptian pounds. Boards of directors were required to have a minimum number of workers, and workers and peasants were guaranteed at least half of the seats in the People's Assembly. Charter also saw a shift in emphasis away from Egyptian nationalism towards Arab unity
Six-Day War of June 5-10, 1967 Nasser, backed by Arab states, kicks Israel into the Gulf of Aqaba. Pre-1967 War cartoon. Al-Jarida newspaper, Lebanon.
CIA Analysis of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. The first page of the draft of the "special estimate" that predicted the outcome of the war
Muhammad Anwar El Sadat 15 October 1970 – 6 October 1981 Anwar Sadat, a cadet in the Military Academy (1936) Marriage photo of Anwar and Jihan Sadat Sadat with his classmates at the Communications Military School
Dismantling Nasser's System? SalahJaheen "It is one of the faults of the Arab Socialist Union that all ideas are coming from the top."