Egypt The Passageway to Africa
Development of Egypt • Geological advantage • Egypt develops along the Nile river • The Nile flows from South to North making it possible to bring goods north • Northern winds blow North to South so if you put a sail up you can travel south along the Nile • Predictable flood patterns make it easy grow food
Other Natural Advantages • Climate allowed for a yearly harvest (no frost) • Easy transportation along Nile allowed for facilitated trade • Delta contains very rich soil which could be used all over for planting • Granite, limestone, and sandstone were plentiful • Desert and Sea provides a natural protective barrier • Isthmus of Suez provides a controllable gateway to the middle east
Picto-graphic Timeline Assignment • Individually students should read pages 22-25 and in their notes write down historical events that took place from Egypt’s origin to their demise. • Each student will then construct their own timeline with at least 10 specific events labeled on the timeline. Each event must have a written explanation that explains its significance as well as a picture/icon that represents it. Timelines should be colored • Timelines will be worth 20 points • 10 events with pictures each worth 2 points= 20 pts. • Some events to consider using: Menes rule, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, Sphinx, Hyksos, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep IV, Ramses II etc
The Old Kingdom • Egypt had developed from a tribe of Ethiopians called the Nubians sometime around 6000BC • Upper Egypt contained southern colonies along the Nile while Lower Egypt was centered around the Nile Delta in the North • Around 3200 BC Menes, a king of Upper Egypt, conquered the kingdom and developed a dynasty • The leaders of Egypt from the time of Menes would be known as Pharaohs • They held absolute power and were revered as Gods.
Written Language • Around 3000 BC Egyptians from Menes line develop Hieroglyphs as a primary form of writing • Hieroglyphics contained about 600 signs and were carved into stone initially but eventually put on Papyrus • The introduction of written language greatly increased technological advancement as well as the study of history • Scribes that could learn how to read and write became important members of society
Rosetta Stone • Key to understanding Egyptian hieroglyps • Discovered in 1798 and deciphered about 25 years later • Written in Egyptian demotic, Greek, Hieroglyph
The Old Kingdom 2680-2180 BC • Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom developed impressive irrigation systems from the Nile to ensure a large harvest • There were two classes of people • Lower were slaves and farmers (most people) • Upper class were royal family members, priests, scribes and specialized artisans • Enslaved kingdoms worked the land and with extra workers Pharaohs began using their slaves to construct great monuments • Great Sphinx built by Khafre around 2500 BC to demonstrate their leaders power
Middle Kingdom 2050 BC-1780 BC • Began strong but then fell apart as contention between priests and pharaoh grew • Hyksos invade around 1700’s BC and change Egypt • They brought new technologies in warfare such as the composite bow and the chariot • Some claim that they could be the ancient Hebrews (Joseph of Egypt) • Manetho (a later Egyptian) claims they were horrible people who enslaved and murdered women and children • Can we trust him?
New Kingdom 1570-1080 BC • A new Empire is created • Hatshepsut: • First female ruler of Egypt • Improved trade in the empire to bring in new technologies • Constructed the Obelisks (tower structures) • Thutmose III: • Destroyed images of his mom • Conquered most of the territory around the Nile • Improved trade with the middle east
New Kingdom cont • Amenhotep IV: • Introduced monotheism under god Aton (the sun) • Moved the capital from Thebes to Tel’amarna (not a good decision) • Changed his name to Akhenaton • Odd body shape and depictions on temples make some wonder if he was . . . . An alien?! • Ramses II (the great) • Last good ruler of the new kingdom • Established a peace treaty between Egypt and the Middle East • Regained much of the old empire lost by Amenhotep to the Sea Peoples