Egypt MERIP on Egypt in Year Three Interview with Springborg Link to syllabus Link to WDI Link to UM-D Library Link to http://canvas.umd.umich.edu/
Muhammad Ali Born ~1770 in Albania into a military family. Came to power about 1803. Died in Egypt in 1849. Spoke Turkish initially. Participated in military expedition in Egypt against French; stayed and parlayed that into control. Was instrumental in pushing for development of Egypt; he lessened Ottoman power, but faced increasing British influence. Encouraged cotton and sugar cultivation, and new manufacturing industries. Also,v educational reforms. Picture from Hassan, In the House of Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Said 1822-1863 (son of Muhammad Ali) Ruled 1854-1863 Friendship with DeLesseps led to French construction of Suez Canal.
Ismail 1830-1895 Ruled 1863-1879 Grandson of Muhammad Ali, (and son of Ibrahim pasha). Made a mess out of the Suez Canal. Was essentially thrown out of office, after which the British ran Egypt. "My country is no longer in Africa; we are now part of Europe. It is therefore natural for us to abandon our former ways and to adopt a new system adapted to our social conditions". [Wiki] Commissioned Aida from Verdi.
Why the Suez Canal is Important Satellite view of Suez
Inauguration of the Suez Canal Painting by Mahmoud Said (1897-1964) French Empress Eugenie
King Fuad 1868-1936 King 1922-1936 Negotiated with Britain the conditions of Egypt’s “independence” in 1922. Fought with the Wafd Party; this period is considered to have been quite unstable politically.
Sa’ad Zaghul 1857-1927 Born into middle class peasant family. Studied at al-Azharand Egyptian School of Law. Married daughter of the Prime Minister; went on to be Minister of Education, and of Justice. Dynamic orator. Founder of the Wafd Party, which asked to represent Egypt at Versailles. Wafd instigated disorders in 1918; Zaghulwas exiled, returned to become Prime Minister. The Wafd is generally considered to have been a failed middle class reformist Party.
Talaat Harb 1867-1941 Leading Egyptian economist/businessman who established the Bank of Egypt (Banque Misr) in 1920. The Bank of Egypt became the center of an extensive group of companies, owned and managed by Egyptians, in areas such as textiles, shipping, publishing, movies, and Egypt Air. The Bank established branches in several other Middle Eastern countries.
Hassan Al-Banna 1905-1949 Father was a watch repairman; he studied to be a teacher at Cairo’s Teacher College, and at Al-Azhar. Established Muslim Brotherhood in 1928 as a youth club, aimed at moral and social reform. Traveled widely to set up branches of the Brotherhood in other countries. Was assassinated by King Farouk’s secret service agents.
King Tutankhamon Discovered 1920
Egypt Awakening Sculpture by Mahmoud Mukhtar, 1928. Example of nationalism, based on Pharaonic images, mixed with modernism symbolized by peasant woman lifting her veil. Now positioned at the entrance of Cairo University
Tears of Isis Painting by Mohamed Naghi 1937 Resurrection of the goddess Isis, mourning her murdered husband Osiris, whom she was eventually able to bring back to life through her divine powers. This painter was important in establishing strands of the new (post WWI) Egyptian nationalism. Modern Egyptian woman, Eternal peasants, Valley of the Kings, Pharaonic images.
King Farouk 1920-1965 (died in exile) King 1936-1952 Tried to keep Egypt neutral during WWII. Was not able to work with Wafd and other opposition groups. Became infamous for decadent life style Overthrown by coup of the Free Officers, from which Nasser emerged.
Princess Fawzia Sister of King Farouk About the time she married the Shah of Iran. A similar picture appeared on the cover of Life magazine.
Prince Hussein’s Palace, near Cairo From Hassan, In the House of Muhammad Ali
Egypt: Rice Vendor, Cairo 1870s Source: Perez Focus East Early Photographs in the Near East p. 174
Egypt: Water Carriers, Cairo 1880s Source: Perez, Focus East Early Photographs in the Near East, p. 133
Egypt: al-Azhar University, 1880s Photo taken by G. Lekegian. Photograph title given in source book. Source: Perez Focus East Early Photographs in the Near East p.69
Spread of irrigation in Egyptian Delta. Source: Richards: Egypt’s Agricultural Development…
1918-1970 President: 1954-1970 Son of a postman. Studied at a military academy; participated in 1948 war. Nationalist. Leader of coup. Secularist Promulgated “Arab Socialism,” and had short union with Syria. Land reform-directed at political enemies. After Britain and US denied funds for Aswan Dam, he nationalized Suez Canal in 1956. Led country into defeat in 1967 War. Died of a heart attack. Gamel Abdel Nasser
Why the Military Coup against Farouk? External and internal crises had de-legitimized the established order. Wafdwas too identified with the urban elites, and had alienated Egyptian nationalists by working with British during WWI. Palace had been inept during the 1948 war with Israel. Palace had not successfully repressed the MB nor the Marxist left. … Mutual exhaustion between the Palace and the Wafd. Note the threat to other MENA regimes represented by this coup: Successful: Iraq, Libya, eventually Yemen, then Iran. Attempted, but not successful: Jordan, Morocco. One could also talk about insecurity in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Gulf countries.
Nasser is important, because: Egyptian, born of humble origins. Was a nationalist. Military man. Came to power by a coup against the monarchy. Secularist (actually fought with the Muslim Brotherhood). Economic Policy: Nationalizations, of foreign firms, Egyptian firms, Suez Canal Land Reform (not particularly successful – not enough land) Protectionist, pushed industrialization Aswan dam (eventually financed by USSR) Pan-Arabist: Union with Syria (short-lived). Third World leader. War with Israel in 1967. His successor, Anwar Sadat, reversed Nasser’s policies in important ways. Sadat pushed for economic liberalization, and eventually signed the peace treaty with Israel.
Nasser and Nehru Nasser as a leader of the “Third World “
Anwar Sadat 1918-1981 President 1970-1981 Had military education, participated in Young Officers’ Coup. Is judged to have re-directed Egypt’s Destiny towards “the west”-US&UK. After losing 1973 June War, he visited Jerusalem in 1977 to discuss peace, which led to Camp David Accords and Nobel Prize, but isolation in Arab world, and his assassination by army soldiers during a military parade.
Hosni Mubarak Born 1928 President 1981- Born to an upper middle class family, he studied military school and briefly in USSR. Has maintained Sadat’s western orien- tation, with some economic liberalization and political openings to Muslim Brotherhood and Islamists, although he has run un-opposed in his own elections. Supported sanctions against Iraq, & Gulf Wars. Important link to Palestinians. Escaped assassination in 1995? in Ethiopia.
Mohamed Morsi Born in a small town in 1951 Degrees at Cairo University, Ph.D. Univ. Southern California Served in the Egyptian Parliament 2000-05. A leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood, became its presidential candidate after M. Khairat el-Shater was declared ineligible Egypt’s first democratically elected president, in June, 2012; overthrown in July, 2013. Now in jail, awaiting trial. Initially, Morsi had promised an inclusive government, but he didn’t, and alienated liberals and the armed forces. The current gov’t/military backlash is attempting to isolate or even eliminate the Muslim Brotherhood.
Current Leaders of Egypt Hazem el-Beblawi Interim Prime Minister Economist; Ph.D. Paris Taught in US, worked at UN-ESCWA Adly Mansour, Interim President, Previous head of the Supreme Court Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, Minister of Defense. Positioning himself to run for president.
Egypt’s current Cabinet http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Cabinet/Cabinet.aspx Backup link through Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabinet_of_Egypt#Present_Egyptian_Cabinet
Gamal Mubarak 1963- Second son of current president, Hosni Mubarak. MBA from AUC. Head of NDP (ruling party). Widely suspected of being groomed to succeed his father, although this is denied by both of them.
Candidates to Succeed Pres. Hosni Mubarak Gamal Mubarak 1963- General Omar Suleiman MBA from AUC. (Head of Intelligence) Head of NDP (ruling party).
Field Marshall Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Born 1935, in Cairo. Minister of Defense since 1991, and since February 2011 is the Head of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, essentially the head of the government He participated in the Suez War of 1956, the wars of 1967 and 1973, and the Gulf War. It was unclear if he and the military would give up power.