UNIT 7: THE EMERGENCE OF THE AMERICAS IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS, 1880-1929 7:1a U.S. overseas expansion: ● U.S. policy toward Latin America was based on the U.S.’s self-interest . ● The U.S. focused on the Caribbean and Central America. ● After the Venezuela Crisis of 1896 the U.S. replaced Britain as the major power in Latin America and in the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty Britain relinquished its right to build a canal through Central America.
7:1b The Spanish-American War: ● Cuba was a Spanish colony fighting for independence. ● The U.S. warship Maine blew-up in Havana Harbor and many Americans blamed Spain. ● The de Lome Letter hurt U.S. relations with Spain. The U.S.S. Maine
7:1c The Spanish-American War: ● The U.S. went to war with Spain in 1898 for the following reasons: √ To gain ports and markets. √ To protect U.S. investments in Cuba. √ To spread American values. √ To ensure a weak and independent Cuba. √ Perhaps to help the economy recover from the Panic of 1893. √ Perhaps citizens were looking for “new frontiers.”
7:1d The Spanish-American War: ● In the Teller Amendment to the declaration of war the U.S. promised not to annex Cuba. ● After the U.S. victory the Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake, and the Philippines became U.S. colonies. ● It took two years to put down the Philippine insurrection against U.S. occupation. ● The Platt Amendment to the Cuban Constitution allowed U.S. troops to intervene in Cuba.
7:1e The Acquisition of Hawaii: ● Americans knew of Hawaii through whaling, missionary activities, and sugar cane production. ● In 1893 when the Hawaiian queen attempted to establish an absolute monarchy, Americans living on Hawaii took control of the islands. ● Hawaii was annexed by the U.S. during the Spanish-American War as a war measure to ensure that the U.S. could control Pearl Harbor and that a foreign power would not gain the islands.
7:1f The U.S. Acquisition of the Panama Canal: ● The French were building a canal across Panama under a contract with Colombia (Panama was a province). ● When the Colombian Senate refused to allow the U.S. to purchase the French right to build a canal the Canal Company and the U.S. encouraged the Panamanians to revolt. ● The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama gave the U.S. the right to control the 10 mile wide Canal Zone in perpetuity in return for rent payments. ● The Canal Zone was returned to Panama in 2000.
7:2a The Big Stick and Dollar Diplomacy: ● President Theodore Roosevelt’s policy of “Speak softly and carry a big stick” led to the “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine. TR’s policy grew out of the 1904 Dominican Republic debt crisis. In the Corollary, the U.S. asserted that it would intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American states (collecting debts, maintaining order, etc.), but European nations (and later the Japanese) were not welcome. ● Under Dollar Diplomacy, President Taft hoped that U.S. financial supervision would promote order in Latin America.
7:2b President Woodrow Wilson and Latin America: ● Wilson continued his predecessors’ policies. ● These policies led to U.S. Marines occupying Nicaragua during 1912-33; Haiti during 1915-34, and the Dominican Republic during 1916-24. ● In 1916 the U.S. bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million. ●Thirteen Latin American countries supported the U.S. during World War I.