4.1: United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans 4.2: How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions ERA 4: Expansion & Reform 1801-1861
I will Gain an Understanding of: • 1. Thomas Jefferson & the Louisiana Purchase • 2. James Madison and the War of 1812 • 3. Andrew Jackson and Westward Expansion • 4. James Polk and the Mexican –American War 1846-1848
Thomas Jefferson • Elected (3rd) President 1800 • Social Perspective: • Admired farmers • Hard working, independent, honest • “virtuous” people
Jefferson & Territorial Expansion • In 1800, Napoleon (France) • Acquired Louisiana Territory From Spain • Jefferson became interested in this territory
Jefferson & Territorial Expansion • T. Jefferson offered French $10 million • For New Orleans & land connected to Florida !!
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 • Negotiations • Napoleon asked for: • $15 MILLION OR .03 cents and acre • For New Orleans, and ENTIRE Louisiana Territory! • $3.12 an acre modern currency !
LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITIONS 1804-1806 • Jefferson’s plan: • Sent Meriwether Lewis & William Clark • 1. To explore territory • 2. Find a route to the Pacific Ocean
The Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1804-1806 • Began in: St. Louis Missouri • Ended in: Oregon Coast • Wrote “Journals” • Field notes (Accounts w/ various Native American Tribes) • Sketches (animals, plants, people, geography) • Drew Maps
SIGNIFICANCE of Lewis & Clark • 1. educated Americans about land “out west” • 2. Warned about hardships future settlers would face (rough terrain, weather, native Americans) • 3. Found a route which led to Pacific Ocean
Problems with Great Britain… • 1807 British ship fired @ U.S. ship Chesapeake • 3 Americans died • 4 American sailors forced into impressment –(American sailors are kidnapped and forced to join British Navy)
Embargo Act, 1807 • Prohibited U.S. ships from anchoring in foreign ports • Jefferson hoped to cripple Britain’s (& France’s) economy
The Embargo Act Backfired • U.S. was hurt economically – no trade!! • 30,000 sailors out of work • Hundreds merchants went bankrupt • Farmers in debt
1808 James Madison (4th President) • Immediate policy: • Re-opened trade with all nations except Britain & France • Britain retaliated by refusing to trade with U.S.
War of 1812- “Mr. Madison’s War” • Official Causes: • 1. British Impressment • 2. British violations of U.S. neutrality • 3. British alliance with Native Americans
U.S. Declared War on Britain 6/1/1812 • Underlying Causes: • 1. Economic recession- British trade policy affected American Economy • 2. Tension between U.S & Britain following the Revolutionary War
American Military Plan: • Troops were sent to Canada, Summer 1812 • Canada was a British territory • American troops burned buildings in Toronto • Were defeated by British
The British are Coming! • The British descended upon Washington D.C.! • The Battle of “Bladensburg” • American troops fledwithout firing a shot
Dolly Madison’s Letter- August 23-24, 1814 • “Will you believe it sister? We have had a battle near Bladensburg, and here I am still within sound of Cannon!...At this late hour a wagon has been procured, and I have filled it with plate and most valuable portable articles belonging to the house…”
Dolly Madison’s Letter August 23-24, 1814 • “…I insist on waiting until the large picture of George Washington is secured…”
The British Arrived at the Presidential Mansion… • Ate the food on the dinner table.. • And Burned Presidential Mansion and other public buildings in Washington D.C.
War of 1812 Ended -August 1814 • Treaty of Ghent – Peace Treaty signed 1814 • restored status quo ante bellum (the state of things before the war) • Established boundary between U.S. & Canada
SIDENOTE! Battle of New Orleans • December, 1814 • British Troops attacked Americans in New Orleans • No one told them war was over!! • American General Andrew Jackson defeated British…
OUTCOME… • 1. Increased nationalism/American Identity • 2. Francis Scott Key inspired to compose • “The Star Spangled Banner” • 3. Presidential mansion re-named “white house”
“Star Spangled Banner,” 1814 • Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early lightWhat so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
Controversy: Missouri Statehood 1820-1821 • 1819 House of Reps • Considered admitting Missouri as a state • 16% inhabitants were slaves
Missouri Statehood 1820-1821 • In 1819 Union had: • 11 Free states • 11 Slave states • If Missouri was admitted as slave state ,It would Upset balance
Missouri Compromise, 1820 • 1820 congress admitted: • 1. Missouri as a slave state • 2. Maine as a Free State • 3. Prohibited slavery in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase territory • North of latitude 36-30
Also in 1819… • Adams- Onis Treaty : U.S. purchased Florida form Spain
Americans Start Moving West • 1816-1821 • Indiana • Mississippi • Illinois • Alabama • Maine • Missouri
Early Pioneers • Migrated as families • Settled near Ohio & Mississippi Rivers
Andrew Jackson • President 1828-1837 • Encouraged movement of white settlers west • Saw Native Americans as obstacle
Indian Removal Act, 1830 • Immediate “re-settlement” of Native Americans living in: • Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, present day Illinois
1830-1850 • 100,000 Native Americans • Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole • Forced to leave their ancestral lands
Trail of Tears, 1838 • U.S. General Winfield Scott & 7,000 troops • Sent to re-locate Cherokees who refused to move
Trail of Tears, 1838 • dragged from their homes • Forced to walk 800 miles to Oklahoma territory • 4,000 died along the way
Trail Where They Cried… • “The mothers of the Cherokee grieved so much that the chiefs prayed for a sign to lift the mother's spirits and give them strength to care for their children. From that day forward, a beautiful new flower, a rose, grew wherever a mother's tear fell to the ground. The rose is white, for the mother's tears. It has a gold center, for the gold taken from the Cherokee lands, and seven leaves on each stem that represent the seven Cherokee clans that made the journey. To this day, the Cherokee Rose prospers along the route of the "Trail of Tears".
Background Info: • Mexico gained independence from Spain 1821 • most of Latin America was under Spanish control 1521-1821
Most of the Southwest • Including Texas • Was Spanish territory (until 1821) • Became Mexican Territory after 1821
From Spanish to Mexican Lands • Example: San Gabriel Mission was founded 1771 by Spanish Priests • El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora del Rio de Porciuncula de Los Angeles was founded 1781
The Mexican State of Coahuila-Texas • Spanish-Mexican population TEJANOS
The Mexican Government • Originally welcomed American settlers in Texas… • Offered land to American settlers for a few cents an acre • were given 3 CONDITIONS
The Mexican Government • Asked that all “American” settlers: • 1. Learn Spanish • 2. Convert to Catholicism • 3. Become Mexican citizens