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Western Expansion. Reasons for Westward Expansion. To acquire Wealth a. Cheap Land b. Gold and Silver c. Land Speculation. Land Speculators : people who bought up large areas of land in the hope of later selling it for a profit. Reasons for Westward Expansion. 2. Lack of Foreign Threat

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reasons for westward expansion
Reasons for Westward Expansion
  • To acquire Wealth

a. Cheap Land

b. Gold and Silver

c. Land Speculation

Land Speculators: people who bought up large areas of land in the hope of later selling it for a profit

reasons for westward expansion1
Reasons for Westward Expansion

2. Lack of Foreign Threat

a. European nations were gone

b. Mexican Wars were over

reasons for westward expansion2
Reasons for Westward Expansion

3. Homestead Act of 1862

  • 160 acres of land:
    • 21 years of age or older
    • American citizen
    • Pay $10 fee
    • Build a home and live in it for 6 months out of every year
    • Land had to be farmed and improved upon

**Once all requirements were met the land was theirs to keep.

slide8

Homestead Act

  • By 1900, individual homesteading families had filed 600,000 claims for more than 80 million acres
  • Problems:
    • Settlers could not meet all requirements
    • Some could not survive economically
    • Most settlers had no farming experience
    • Fraud was problematic: speculators would establish “fake” homesteads and land office agents rarely visited claims
reasons for westward expansion3
Reasons for Westward Expansion
  • Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
    • Provided support for state colleges
    • Millions of acres given to state governments who sold it to land speculators at .50/acre.
    • States used the money to build colleges.
homestead simulation1
Homestead Simulation
  • Introduce the Simulation.
    • Our time period is the 1860s and 1870s.
    • The way we are measuring land is acres, sections, and townships.
    • Life as a homesteader is hard. Weather can be your best friend or your worst enemy.
choose identity
Choose Identity
  • Pick One Name Out of the Hat (or Box).
  • Fill in your name and place of origin.
choose your occupation
Choose your Occupation
  • Farmer
  • Banker
  • Blacksmith
  • Rancher
  • Prospector (Gold Digger)
  • Saloon Owner
  • Doctor
are you a u s citizen
Are you a U.S. Citizen?
  • If you drew a person who’s Place of Origin is not the United States, Role a die.
  • 1-3 you are a U.S. Citizen.
  • 4-6 you are an Immigrant who is not a Citizen of the United States
family
Family
  • Are you married or single? What is your spouses name?
  • Do you have kids? How many? What are their names? How old are they?
  • Write this information on your sheet.
beginning wealth
Beginning Wealth
  • Go around the Classroom and choose a number 1-100.
  • You CANNOT choose a number that has already been taken.
choose your homestead
Choose your homestead
  • Draw a numbered slip of paper. Choose your homesteads in the order that you received your slip of paper.
  • If you have one adult in your family, you get one quarter section. If you have two adults, you get two quarter sections each. (All children are under age 21)
  • You CANNOT choose the sections that are unavailable for homesteading (marked with a *)
building on the homestead
Building on the Homestead
  • Draw an X wherever you choose on your quarter section of land to signify your family home.
  • Draw a dot/black filled in circle to signify farm buildings.
examine forms
Examine Forms
  • Farming Income Chart
  • Farmer’s Decision Form
  • Homesteader’s Earnings Form
farming decision form
Farming Decision Form
  • Fill out Year 1 on Farming Decision Form.
  • One Student will roll a die for the entire class.
  • The number that comes up is the column we will use on the Farming Income Chart.
  • Calculate the amount of money you made.
homesteaders earnings form
Homesteaders Earnings Form
  • Fill out Year 1: Add income (money you made), subtract expenditures (money that you spent)
fate cards
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Helms, Rodgers, Austin, Casas, and Dearborn.
year 2
Year 2
  • Before we start Year 2, you can decide whether to buy or sell land.
  • The government can sell unsettled land for $1.50 an acre. (Each Quarter Square is 160 Acres, so to buy one you need to pay $240)
  • You can sell your land to classmates for whatever they are willing to pay you.
farming decision form1
Farming Decision Form
  • Fill out Year 2 on Farming Decision Form.
  • One Student will roll a die for the entire class.
  • The number that comes up is the column we will use on the Farming Income Chart.
  • Calculate the amount of money you made.
homesteaders earnings form1
Homesteaders Earnings Form
  • Fill out Year 2: Add income (money you made), subtract expenditures (money that you spent)
fate cards1
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Dean, Carlen, deJong, Marsh, and Samuels.
year 3
Year 3
  • Before we start Year 3, you can decide whether to buy or sell land.
  • The government can sell unsettled land for $1.50 an acre. (Each Quarter Square is 160 Acres, so to buy one you need to pay $240)
  • You can sell your land to classmates for whatever they are willing to pay you.
farming decision form2
Farming Decision Form
  • Fill out Year 3 on Farming Decision Form.
  • One Student will roll a die for the entire class.
  • The number that comes up is the column we will use on the Farming Income Chart.
  • Calculate the amount of money you made.
homesteaders earnings form2
Homesteaders Earnings Form
  • Fill out Year 3: Add income (money you made), subtract expenditures (money that you spent)
fate cards2
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Edwards, Bensen, Novak, Lee, and Holt.
year 4
Year 4
  • Before we start Year 4, you can decide whether to buy or sell land.
  • The government can sell unsettled land for $1.50 an acre. (Each Quarter Square is 160 Acres, so to buy one you need to pay $240)
  • You can sell your land to classmates for whatever they are willing to pay you.
farming decision form3
Farming Decision Form
  • Fill out Year 4 on Farming Decision Form.
  • One Student will roll a die for the entire class.
  • The number that comes up is the column we will use on the Farming Income Chart.
  • Calculate the amount of money you made.
homesteaders earnings form3
Homesteaders Earnings Form
  • Fill out Year 4: Add income (money you made), subtract expenditures (money that you spent)
fate cards3
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Davis, Nelson, Boone, Murphy, O'Toole and McKenna
year 5
Year 5
  • Before we start Year 5, you can decide whether to buy or sell land.
  • The government can sell unsettled land for $1.50 an acre. (Each Quarter Square is 160 Acres, so to buy one you need to pay $240)
  • You can sell your land to classmates for whatever they are willing to pay you.
farming decision form4
Farming Decision Form
  • Fill out Year 5 on Farming Decision Form.
  • One Student will roll a die for the entire class.
  • The number that comes up is the column we will use on the Farming Income Chart.
  • Calculate the amount of money you made.
homesteaders earnings form4
Homesteaders Earnings Form
  • Fill out Year 5: Add income (money you made), subtract expenditures (money that you spent)
fate cards4
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Juarez, Hudson, Moore, Caluchi and Sage.
year 6
Year 6
  • Frontier Election!
  • Why was government necessary on the frontier?
  • Offices up for election:
    • County Commissioners (3 total)
    • Sheriff (1 Total)
    • County Judge (1 Total)
    • County Treasurer (1 Total)
campaign
Campaign
  • Interested Candidates:
    • Get the Petition Form from Mr. Beem, and get at least 8 signatures from other students who are affirming your candidacy.
    • Turn in your petition to Mr. Beem.
    • After the petitions are signed, we will hear the campaign speeches of the candidates and vote!
  • DURING THE CAMPAIGN, farmers follow the same procedures as the previous years. Candidates forego any farming for year 6. The die will be rolled after the petitions are given to the candidates.
campaign speech
Campaign Speech
  • Each Candidate has the option to make a Campaign Speech advocating for your vote.
election
Election
  • Vote for the following:
    • 3 Commissioners
    • 1 Judge
    • 1 Sheriff
    • 1 Treasurer
  • The one who receives the most votes (or top 3 for Commissioners) wins the election and will have their post and paycheck!
  • The election winners will NOT continue to farm, and they will make their paycheck for year 6
taxes
Taxes
  • Now that the community is growing, taxes are needed to pay for the things the community needs, like a school, law enforcement, government, and roads.
  • Include these taxes in year 6. Subtract your taxes from the Other category.
  • The Treasurer will go around and total the amount of taxes collected for the year.
fate cards5
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Peterson, Luckman, Cohen, Braun, and Gibson.
frontier roads
Frontier Roads
  • Read Frontier Roads together.
  • County Commissioners discuss their plans for the roads.
  • Farmers: Make your decisions and do steps for year 7. Die will be rolled after Frontier Roads is discussed.
  • After County Commissioners come up with a plan, they will present it to the community. Landowners whose land the roads will pass through can either accept or reject the plan.
if plan is rejected
If plan is rejected…
  • County Commissioners have 2 options:
    • 1) Change the route and propose it to the community again.
    • 2) Take the issue to court, and have the judge decide the issue. Issues:
      • A) whether or not the road should still be built through these areas, even with objections
      • B) if built, how much objectors should be paid.
once decisions are final
Once decisions are final
  • County Commissioners draw the roads on the map.
finish year 7
Finish Year 7
  • Figure out how much you have earned.
  • Pay your taxes!
fate cards6
Fate Cards
  • The following homesteaders draw a fate card and apply it to their total: Ericson, Lucas, Sherman, Fitzgerald and Gunther.
railroads
Railroads
  • Railroads are coming through! Follow the directions on the Railroads sheet.
slide73

Make decisions for Year 8. Remember the effects of the railroad coming through to your profit and land value (Yippee!), but also remember that the higher land value also affects your taxes.

  • Taxes = 1/20 of the value of the property + $10 per house.
  • Calculate your totals.
who is the winner
Who is the Winner
  • Who has the highest total at the end of the game?
final activity
Final Activity…
  • Write a letter of at least 5 sentences to a family member back home in the Eastern United States. In that letter, talk about your experience in the west. (How have you survived? Have you made money? What was your fate card? Were you elected to public office? Were you successful? Did you fail?)
  • Turn in your letter before you leave.