Chapter 20 The U.S. Looks Overseas. HOW DID THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE ITS GROWING INTEREST IN THE PACIFIC AND IN LATIN AMERICA. Bullet Points p. 699. Read pgs. 678-685. Ch 20 Sec 1. I can understand how the U.S. acquired new territory and expanded trade in the Asia-Pacific region.
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Chapter 20The U.S. Looks Overseas HOW DID THE U.S. DEMONSTRATE ITS GROWING INTEREST IN THE PACIFIC AND IN LATIN AMERICA
Bullet Points p. 699 Read pgs. 678-685
Ch 20 Sec 1 • I can understand how the U.S. acquired new territory and expanded trade in the Asia-Pacific region
Ch. 20 Sec 1Eyes on the Pacific • Manifest Destiny – U.S. should have borders from Atlantic to Pacific ??? • Why not go further west? • Americans did just that
Japan • Mid 1800’s Americans wanted trade with Japan • Japan was a closed country
Japan • What they didn’t have was a strong navy • Pres. Millard Fillmore sends Commodore Matthew C. Perry and his fleet – 1553 • Japanese thought they were ready
Japan • Perry arrives with ships • Gives Japanese letter from President and leaves Were the Japanese impressed?
Japan • Yes they were • 1 year later Perry returns • Japan grants America trading rights • Changes Japan forever
Alaska • 1867 – Alaska belonged to Russia • Russia wants American influence, not British • 1869 – Russia sells for $7.2 million (2 cents per acre) • Many in U.S. against sale • Did not know of riches
U.S. Expansion • America was isolationist (avoid other countries) • Europeans were imperialists (empire building) • Late 1800’s, U.S. wanted territories
Turner Thesis • Western frontier has been conquered • No more expansion • Was he ever wrong!!!
Economic Growth • U.S. has powerful economy • U.S. did not want 1. To be denied raw materials 2. To be denied global market
Economic Growth • Key is a strong navy • Control the seas – (Alfred T. Mahan)
Other Reasons for Expansion • Protect overseas trade • Spread American values
Samoa • U.S. Navy and American shipping companies needed a refueling stop in Pacific • Germany and Britain also wanted the same • Almost went to war • 1899, Germany and U.S. divided control
Hawaii • After 1820, American sugar planters set up plantations • Planters gained power and forced king to give them power in government • When king died, Queen tried to limit power
Hawaii • With help of U.S. Marines, planters seized control of Islands (1893) • Congress annexed Hawaii in 1898
China • Late 1800’s, war weakens China • European powers & Japan try to divide up China
China • U.S. fears exclusion • U.S. wants, “Open Door” policy WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? • The right of all nations to trade with China
China – Boxer Rebellion • Chinese object – form secret group • This group – The Boxers – attacked foreigners • Chinese gov’t. helped
China • U.S. and other countries send 18,000 troops • Defeat Boxers, kill Chinese and loot Beijing
China • U.S. insists on Open Door policy • Insists China not be carved up • China survived but with foreign influence
Bullet points p. 699 Read pgs. 688 - 692
Ch 20 Sec 2The Spanish – American War • I can understand the causes and effects of the Spanish – American War
Cuba • 90 miles south of Florida • Controlled by Spain since 1492 • Cubans revolt 1868
Cuba • First revolt failed • 2nd revolt, 1895 • People put in reconcentration camps • 200,000 die
José Martí • Cuban poet • Inspired Cubans from exile in U.S. • Got to Cuba but killed
American Reaction • Americans sympathetic • Want to oust Spanish • Protect American investments in Cuba 50 mil. Rice, sugar, RR’s, iron mines • Presidents Cleveland and McKinley said NO intervention
U.S. Press • U.S. Newspapers urged intervention • William R. Hearst of New York Journal one of the worst
Remember the Maine • 1898 – Fighting in the streets of Havana, Cuba • President McKinley sent U.S. Battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American interests
Remember the Maine • With this big battleship in the harbor, what could possibly go wrong at 9:40 PM on Feb. 15, 1898?
Remember the MaineTo Hell with Spain • Press and public blame Spanish • Cause of the explosion still unknown Spanish Naval mine Sunk by Navy to provoke war Fire in coal bunker
WAR!! WAR!! WAR!! • Asst. Secretary of Navy T. Roosevelt thinks Congress will declare war • Sent Adm. Dewey to Spanish held Philippine Islands
WAR!! WAR!! WAR!! • April 20, 1898, Congress declares war on Spain • May 1, 1898, Dewey attacks Spanish fleet in Philippines. • Sinks entire squadron • No American losses
War in Cuba • TR (who is that?????) • Gave up his job as Asst. Sec. of the Navy • Formed Cavalry group, the Rough Riders • Poorly trained, poorly equipped
Rough Riders • July 1, 1898 • TR leads men up San Juan Hill in Santiago Cuba • Black, white, it didn’t matter
White regiments, black regiments . . . Fought shoulder to shoulder, unmindful of race or color . . . And mindful only of their common duty as Americans. First Lt. John J. Pershing
An American Empire • Dec. 1898 – Spain surrenders • Cuba independent • Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam and Wake Islands to U.S. • U.S. pays $20 million