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AMERICAN EXPANSION

AMERICAN EXPANSION

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AMERICAN EXPANSION

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  1. AMERICAN EXPANSION

  2. Map 6 of 45

  3. Map 7 of 45

  4. 1 US Territorial Expansion When? 1 - Original United States • 1776 From Where? • Great Britain Why/How? • US declared independence from Great Britain • DOI Pay $$$$? • No President? • No

  5. US Territorial Expansion When? 2 – United States in 1783 • 1783 From Where? • Great Britain Why/How? 1 2 • Revolutionary War • Treaty of Paris Pay $$$$? • No President? • No

  6. US Territorial Expansion When? 3 - LouisianaPurchase 1803 • 1803 From Where? • France Why/How? • US needed New Orleans 3 1 Pay $$$$? 2 • $15 million President? • Jefferson

  7. US Territorial Expansion When? 4 – Ceded by Great Britain • 1818 From Where? 4 • Great Britain Why/How? • Border disputes with Great Lakes and Oregon • Rush-Bagot Treaty 1818 • Share both areas. 3 1 2 Pay $$$$? President? • No • No

  8. US Territorial Expansion When? 5 - Florida • 1819 From Where? • Spain 4 Why/How? • Stop Indian attacks on Georgia • Florida Purchase Treaty 1 3 2 Pay $$$$? 5 • $5 million President? • Monroe

  9. America’s Manifest Destiny

  10. “Manifest Destiny” • First coined by newspaper editor,John O’Sullivanin 1845. • "the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and development of self-government entrusted to us. • It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." Manifest Destiny was the belief that the US would control the North American continent from the Atlantic to Pacific. A myth of the West as a land of romanceand adventureemerged.

  11. Belief that the US should expand its territory from coast to coast

  12. Picture/M.Destiny MANIFEST DESTINY American belief that U.S. would control the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. • Reasons • Escape religious persecution • Find new trade markets and harbors on the Pacific • Claim land for farming, ranching and mining • Competition with Europe • Spread democratic ideas “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872

  13. Picture/M.Destiny MANIFEST DESTINY • KEY EVENTS • Texas statehood • Oregon territory • Mexican War • Mexican Cession • Pioneers TrekWest • California trail • Oregon trail • Mormon trail • Gold discovered • Gold Rush “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872

  14. MANIFEST DESTINY • In John Gast's "American Progress," (1872) a diaphanously and precarious clad America floats westward thru the air with the "Star of Empire" on her forehead. She has left the cities of the east behind, and the wide Mississippi, and still her course is westward. In her right hand she carries a school book - testimonial of the national enlightenment, while with her left she trails the slender wires of the telegraph that will bind the nation. Fleeing her approach are Indians, buffalo, wild horses, bears and other game, disappearing into the storm and waves of the Pacific coast. They flee the wondrous vision.

  15. Picture/M.Destiny MANIFEST DESTINY • KEY EVENTS • Californiastatehood • Donner Party • 40 mile desert • Ragtown • Genoa Westward the Course of EmpireEmmanuel Leutze, 1860

  16. US Territorial Expansion When? 7 - Texas • 1845 From Where? • Republic of Texas • Mexico 4 Why/How? • Texas wanted to become part of the U.S. 1 3 2 Pay $$$$? • No 7 5 President • Tyler • Polk fought for it.

  17. Picture/Polk MANIFEST DESTINY • James K. Polk, Democrat • Called “Young Hickory” after his hero Andrew Jackson. • Congressmen from Tennessee • Election of 1844, wins as a dark horse candidate. • President from 1845 to 1849 • Believed he had permission from the American people to fulfill the Manifest Destiny. • Responsible for the following • Texas • Oregon Territory in 1846 • Mexican War

  18. Goals of Polk’s Administration • Lower the tariff. • Resolve the Oregon boundarydispute. • Restore the independent treasury. • Acquire California and Texas even if meant war with Mexico and fulfill our Manifest Destiny.

  19. 1844 Election Results

  20. Trails TRAILS WESTWARD

  21. Overland Immigration to the West • Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.

  22. The Oregon TrailAlbert Bierstadt, 1869

  23. US Territorial Expansion 6 - Oregon Territory When? • 1846 From Where? 4 • Great Britain Why/How? 6 1 • US demanded all of Oregon Territory “54° 40’ or fight!” • US and Britain compromised at the 49° 3 2 7 5 Pay $$$$? President? • No • Polk

  24. Oregon dispute MANIFEST DESTINY • Treaty with Great Britain in 1846 • President Polk’s campaign slogan was 54,40 or fight… • Compromised with British and divided the Oregon Country at the 49th parallel 49th Parallel

  25. US Territorial Expansion When? 8 - Mexican Cession • 1848 4 From Where? • Mexico 7 Why/How? 1 3 2 • Polk offers to buy California from Mexico---refused • Mexican American War! • US wins • In Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 8 6 5 Pay $$$$? President? • $15 million • Polk

  26. MEXICAN WAR • Long Term Causes • Manifest Destiny • Immediate Causes • Texas statehood, 1845 • Mexico refusing to sell California • Border dispute between US and Mexico • Effects • US receives Mexican Cession • Disputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil War

  27. The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt  June 14, 1845 John C. Frémont

  28. The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 • Polk sent Congressmen John Slidell to Mexico City and was to negotiate an agreement with the Mexican Government. • Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. • US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. • US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. • Offered Mexico $25 million for California. • US wanted California at any price. • Mexico turned us down on all conditions. John Slidell

  29. Did Polk Provoke a War? • Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to march 5,000 American troops to the Northern side of the Nueces River. • Once the Mexican government refused to receive Slidell, President Polk ordered General Taylor to move his troops to the northern side of the Rio Grande River. • The Mexican and American troops were facing each other across the river. • When Taylor refused to retreat to the Nueces, the Mexican commander crossed the Rio Grande, ambushed a scouting force of 63 Americans, and killed or wounded 16 of them (April 24, 1846). • Hearing the news, Polk asked Congress for a declaration of war saying that “American blood was shed on American soil.”, • Congress gave Polk a declaration of war. American blood on American soil General Taylor President Polk

  30. Map 8 of 45 1848, Mexican Cession. President Polk fought Mexican American War. Defeated Mexico. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Gave them $15 million.

  31. Mexican War MEXICAN WAR

  32. General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto “Old Rough and Ready”

  33. The Bombardment of Vera Cruz

  34. General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”

  35. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist,American Negotiator

  36. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • Mexico ceded Mexican Cession to U.S. • Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico • U.S. paid Mexico $15 million MEXICAN CESSION Eventual states:California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona & New Mexico.

  37. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • Mexico ceded Mexican Cession to U.S. • Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico • U.S. paid Mexico $15 million MEXICAN CESSION Eventual states:California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona & New Mexico.

  38. US Territorial Expansion 9 – Gadsden Purchase When? • 1853 4 From Where? • Mexico 7 Why/How? 1 3 2 • Build a transcontinental railroad 8 6 Pay $$$$? 5 9 • $10 million President? • There was a President but not significant to this decision.

  39. Map 8 of 45

  40. Trails TRAILS WESTWARD

  41. CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH

  42. Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850 California resumes slavery question • Radical Southern Democrats, “fire-eaters” threated secession if California becomes a free state. • Abolitionists and several political parties support California as a free state. • Underground RR & fugitive slave issues: • South wants Fugitive Slave Law enforced. Fugitive Slave Law: US Law that required escaped slaves caught in the North to be returned to the South. Secession: Refers to the Southern States wanting to separate from the United States and forming their own country