Chapter 1: Expansion, Reform and Tension American Expansion
Northwest Ordinance • With an end to the American Revolution, and the Treaty of Paris firmly in place, America now stretched more than 800,000 square miles from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Mississippi River. • The great expanse offered unlimited opportunity for settlement of farms and towns. Natural resources were abundant. Americans began moving westward. • Encouraged by Congress, within the short span of 100 years, America grew to 38 states, including Texas to the south, and Oregon and California to the west.
Northwest Ordinance • In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance.It established a set of principles and procedures for statehood, applied first to states carved out of the Northwest Territory, including Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana. • The Northwest Ordinance guaranteed civil liberties, established guidelines for statehood, encouraged education, and banned slavery from the entire region.
North West Territory Grid system was created by Thomas Jefferson… Structured and organized land policy Allowed for a peaceful purchase of land. Promoted an orderly expansion westward.. Confederation Congress convinced states who claimed land out west to cede their land to the US Govt. US Govt. was to come up with a fair and reasonable land policy…..Unlike the Proclamation of 1763….
Washington WASHINGTON'S INAGAURAL New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, 1789. Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. Capital city at this time was New York City. 1789-1797
PRECEDENTS OF WASHINGTON Precedents are models, examples or influences other Presidents would follow What to call the President? Mr. President President sets their own personal style Cabinet appointed by President and advises him • VP has no official duties • President acts independent from Congress • Congress relies on the advice of the President • Served 2 terms and stepped aside for someone else
Washington's First Cabinet • Cabinet advises the President and heads up an agency of the government • Department of State-----Foreign affairs Jefferson----Secretary of State • Department of Treasury---Financial affairs Alexander Hamilton—Secretary of the Treasury • Department of War-------------------Military affairs Henry Knox----Secretary of War • Attorney General----------------------Legal affairs Edmund Randolph---Department of Justice • Postmaster General-------------------Postal system Samuel Osgood
HAMILTON VS. JEFFERSON • Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation. • Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially. • President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.
FIRST SUPREME COURT President Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme Court 3 from North and 3 from South John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
President Washington faced several Indian problems. British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers. Washington sent General “Mad Anthony” Wayne to defeat the Indian tribes.
War in the Old Northwest Territory Several tribes, led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, scored early victories (1790–91) The Miamis were defeated at Fallen Timbers by General Mad Anthony Wayne (1794)
War in the Old Northwest Territory • Treaty of Greenville • (1795) gave USA right to settle most of Ohio • First formal recognition of Indian sovereignty over land not ceded by treaty
Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania. • Refused to pay Hamilton’ s excise tax • Believed it was an unfair tax. • Were called the “Whiskey Rebels” Whiskey Rebellion
Issue at hand was testing the power of the new Constitution • Outcome: • Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy” • Showed the power of the national government Whiskey Rebellion
WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL SPEECH Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations. Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U.S. foreign policy. Foreign Policy: Isolationism
1796 campaign • Adams was supported by New England and Federalists • Defeated Jefferson 71-68 in Electoral College • Jefferson becomes VP • France and US close to war. • Jay’s Treaty • US not honoring the Franco-American Treaty of 1778 Adams Becomes President
Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson HamiltonJefferson • Strong central govt. Strong state govt. • Elite upper class People participation • Commerce/Industry Farms • National Bank Against Nat. Bank • North/New England South/West • Loose Construction Strict Construction • Favored EnglandFavored France
Election of 1800 Democratic-Republican candidates Thomas Jefferson Presidential Candidate Aaron Burr Vice President
Election 1800: Federalist John Adams Presidential Candidate Charles C. Pinckney Vice- President Candidate
Winner of the 1800 Election: Thomas Jefferson’s Thomas Jefferson Presidency 1801-1809
John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/Republican • Significance of Election of 1800 • peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another • “revolutionary” achievement
The Election of 1800 • This contest marked the first time that power passed from one American political party to another. • Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson against Federalist John Adams • The campaign was vicious. • Supporters of each side made their arguments in letters and newspaper editorials, which often made wild accusations and spread scandalous stories.
The Election of 1800 • Problems • The election ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr. • Political parties did not specify who was the party’s preferred candidate for president. • The House of Representatives was deadlocked at 35 votes. • Hamilton urged Federalists to vote for Jefferson. On the 36th vote, Jefferson was chosen president. • These problems with the voting system led to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment (1804), which said that electors must cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
But he’s on the ten dollar bill … Hamilton’s choice of Jefferson over Burr in the House of Representatives in the 1800 election and Hamilton’s opposition to Burr’s 1804 run for New York governor led to their deadly duel. Hamilton’s death ended the power of the Federalist Party.
Hamilton Burr Duel • Usually after a challenge, differences were resolved peacefully. • Threw dice to see who shot first. • Hamilton won, but missed • Burr hit Hamilton in the stomach causing him to die the next day. • Burr is charged with murder but flees before being put on trial. • Burr flees to Europe eventually but returns to NY to practice law until his death.
Thomas Jefferson • Thomas Jefferson • Reduces the size of the government • Reduced the size of the army and navy • Pushes for free trade • Marburyv. Madison (1803) -John Marshall -Establishes Judicial Review
The Beginning • March 4, 1801 • Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D.C. • He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.
First Inaugural Address • Essential Principles of Government • “equal and exact justice to all men” • “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations” • “the support of state governments” • “the preservation of general government” • punishment for those who choose to revolt • compliance with the decisions of the majority
First Inaugural Address • Essential Principles of Government Cont… • “a well disciplined militia” • honest payment of debts • maintaining a sound economy • proper distribution of information • freedom of religion • freedom of the press
The Jefferson Presidency • Simplifying the Presidency • Jefferson replaces some Federalists with Democratic-Republicans • Reduces size of armed forces; cuts social expenses of government • Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U.S. • Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs • Southern Dominance of Politics • Jefferson first to take office in new Washington, D.C. • South dominates politics; Northern, Federalist influence decline
II. Louisiana Purchase • In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was elected the 3rd President of the United States. Jefferson was intensely curious about treasures yet to be discovered in the western land. Jefferson approached Congress with a request for $2,500 for an expedition west of Mississippi River, into territory then claimed by France. • Jefferson’s plan was to gain knowledge about the plants and animals that inhabited the vast uncharted West.
Louisiana Purchase • Eventually, Jefferson hoped to open the land to settlement, explaining to Congress that it would be to the benefit of Native Americans to “abandon hunting, to apply to the raising of stock, to agriculture and domestic manufacture, and thereby prove to themselves that less land and labor will maintain them in this, better than in their former mode of living.” To Jefferson, this was a logical plan for coexistence between Native Americans and westward settlers.
The Louisiana Purchase • General Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to build a French empire. • Bonaparte wanted to regain France’s former lands called the Louisiana Territory. • Those lands had gone to Spain in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. • Spain turned over control of the area to France.
Louisiana Purchase • Since Napoleon was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to the U.S. for $15 million. • He needed money for his war with Great Britain. • Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory for $15 million, about 3 cents an acre. • Almost doubled the size of the United States • Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment • Why? Didn’t fight a war, no bloodshed.
The Louisiana Purchase • Soon after proposing the Lewis & Clark Expedition, Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to try to purchase New Orleans and West Florida. • At the meeting, France offered to sell the United States all of the vast Louisiana Territory. • The Constitution did not directly give Jefferson the authority to buy new territory for the nation. • Jefferson and his fellow strict constructionists decided that the right to acquire territory was implicit in the president’s constitutional power to make treaties.
Louisiana Purchase • April 30, 1803 • The purchase added • 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United States. • July 4, 1803 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced. Original treaty can be found at: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals_iv/sections/louisiana_purchase_treaty.html
Spanish Land 1800 • Great Britain after the Revolution. • United States after War • Spanish land after Revolution New Orleans
The Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson sent the Corps of Discovery, usually called the Lewis and Clark expedition, to explore the land of the Louisiana Purchase. • Led by Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson’s secretary, and William Clark, an experienced frontiersman • Their ultimate goal was to reach the Pacific Ocean. • They mapped the country and surveyed its natural history, including plants, animals, and landforms. • Zebulon M. Pike led an 1805 expedition that traveled 2,000 miles to explore the upper Mississippi Valley. • In 1806 he explored the Southwest and gathered information about the economy and defenses of Spanish New Mexico and Texas.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition • Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to lead the expedition. They led 50 other explorers in the Corps of Discovery. • Starting near St. Louis, they traveled up the Missouri River. Ultimately, they traveled for 28 months, covering almost 8,000 miles along a route that took them to the Pacific Ocean and back. • Lewis and Clark met Sacagawea, a young Shoshone woman, while wintering at Fort Mandan in today’s North Dakota.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition • Sacagawea became instrumental in the success of the expedition, serving as interpreter and guide. • The success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition opened the floodgates to western expansion, and along with it, a dramatic an ominous change for Native Americans living both east and west of the Mississippi River.
Lewis and Clark Expedition • January 18, 1803 • Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark Expedition. • In this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians. • The original message can be found at: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=17