What is editing? • Editing is often thought of a as a process of cutting down. • It can also be the process of coordinating and connecting one shot to another. • Editing can be split into two sections: • Juxtaposition of shots. • Transitions and effects
Count the cuts • From the clip from ‘Hustle’ simply count the number of cuts. • How many cuts are there? • Why are some cuts quite long? • What can you say about they way the cuts are put together? • Are there any editing effects used?
Juxtaposition of shots • The placing of shots side by side to create meaning. • The editor and director will decide after shooting is complete which shots to use in the ‘final cut’. • The director might well have hours of footage or ‘rushes’ to select from.
Classic Hollywood style • The classic Hollywood style of editing is all about simplicity and is also known as continuity editing. • Editing in this style should be ‘invisible’ so that an audience are unaware the sequence has even been edited. • Classic editing normally begins with a master or establishing shot, then cuts to a two shot or mid, followed by a close up.
‘Soap Operas’ • This clip from ‘Hollyoaks’ – a modern soap opera is an example of simple continuity editing. Shots are selected simply to make meaning easy. The scene begins with a master shot of the room and then cuts back and forth using shot reverse shots, close ups and mid shots.
Montage • Montage editing is the process of using images that on their own have separate meaning but when put together or collide create an altogether different meaning. It’s similar to a an art collage • Look at these images…..
What is happening here? What is the meaning? What is the next shot?
‘Montage cont….’ • The theme tune sequence from ‘Spooks’ is an example of montage editing. • Whereby shots that have individual meaning are put together to create a different meaning. • What meaning is created? What do we a learn about the show?
Editing task – draw storyboards into a sequence. • A mid shot of a blood stained shirt • A mid shot of an open window. • A close up of hands • A wide est. shot of an office block. • A dog’s eye view tracking shot of some feet walking. • A static long shot of a man in a room through a window. • A POV of someone walking. • An ECU of an eye/eyes. • A cutaway to a clock. • A high angle CCTV shot of a dead body. • In order you feel tells the story best! • Only use the 10 shots provided. • You don’t have to use all of the shots. • You can repeat the shots. • Task: in groups film one set of storyboard frames. Remember to pause the camera, so that you edit in camera.
Transitions- Visual Punctuation • Transitions are often likened to punctuation in writing. Cuts, fades, dissolves, wipes are like commas, colons and full stops. • What are the purpose of transitions? • To signify the passing of time or change of scene. The longer the transition the more significant. • The majority of mainstream TV dramas are edited in a very simple continuity fashion often without ‘fancy’ transitions or effects.
The ‘straight’ cut • Fade out/in
Iris wipe Wipe Dissolve Out
Editing Effects • As well as cutting, co-ordinating and using transitions the editor and director have to decide whether editing effects should be used. Not all films use editing effects but those that do want to make the editing obvious. • Editing Effects: • Motion Control: slow motion, sped up, freeze frame. • Picture effects: Black and white, tinting/colouring, extra grain, split screen. • Look at example of split screen - ’24’.
Analysis • ‘Heroes’ • Make notes on juxtaposition of shots/shot selection and connection • Pace and rhythm of editing (length of cuts) • Editing transitions (fades etc) • Editing effects and motion control. • Task: how does the editing in ‘Heroes’ create meaning for the audience?
Bordwell and Thompson • Bordwell and Thompson came up with four theories of what they called ‘editing relationships’: • Pictures Relationships • Rhythmic relationships • Space relationships • Time relationships.
Picture and Rhythmic • Picture relationship is when one shot is matched up to another to create menacing. This is often called a ‘match cut’. Look at the example from ‘Psycho’. • Rhythmic is all about pace of the editing. Quicker editing for quick action sequences ( MTV) slower takes for longer character studies.
Space and Time • Space is about cutting to create the illusion that the story is going from one place to another.Character in interior studio in LA walks out of exterior and into jungle. • Time relationships is about condensing periods of time. A whole week in the narrative can be condensed to ten seconds in the edit suite.