EDITING • The work of splicing together shots to assemble the finished film
FUNCTIONS OF EDITING • Creating Dramatic Focus • Controlling Narration and Point of View – control the flow of story information and visual point of view
FUNCTIONS OF EDITING • Continuity – story and images must move along in an orderly manner • Creating Tempo and Mood – shorter shots produce a faster pace while longer shots produce fuller, measured pacing. The length of shots should NEVER remain the same throughout a film
EDITING • TRANSITIONS-The shot is defined by editing but editing also works to join shots together. • cut, direct cut, straight cut- An immediate shift to the next shot
PARALLEL EDITING • Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously. The two actions are therefore linked, associating the characters from both lines of action.
Cross-cutting • The use of continually shortening shots and more frequent cuts to establish tension
CUT-IN, CUT AWAY-An instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space, and vice versa.
Dissolve-A gradual transition created by fading out the current shot and at the same time fading in the new shot (creating a brief moment of superimposition).
fade out (to color) ... fade in-the end of a shot is marked by fading out to an empty screen (usually black); there is a brief pause; then a fade in introduces the next shot.Jump Cut-Leaving a gap (i.e., leaving out frames) in an otherwise continuous shot. The gap will make the picture "jump“
IRIS-A round, moving mask that can close down to end a scene (iris-out) or emphasize a detail, or it can open to begin a scene (iris-in) or to reveal more space around a detail; very old school.
ESTABLISHING SHOT/RE-ESTABLISHING SHOT-A shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene.
SHOT/REVERSE SHOT-Two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversation situation.
THE WIPE A solid line will travel across the screen, sometimes vertically, sometimes horizontally. As it moves, it pushes one shot off the screen to reveal another. Aggressive, highly visible form of edit, unlike the fade or dissolve.
MATCHES-editing matches refer to those techniques that join as well as divide two shots by making some form of connection between them. EYELINE MATCH-the first shot shows a person off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees.
GRAPHIC MATCH-Two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (e.g., color, shape). MATCH ON ACTION-A cut which splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement, making it seem to continue uninterrupted.
DURATION-editing can affect the experience of time in the cinema by creating a gap between screen time and diegetic time or by establishing a fast or slow rhythm for the scene.
OVERLAPPING EDITING-cuts that repeat part or all of an action, thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration.
RHYTHM-The perceived rate and regularity of sounds, series of shots, and movements within the shots. It is also one of the most complex to analyze, since it is achieved through the combination of mis-en-scene, cinematography, sound and editing. Indeed, rhythm can be understood as the final balance all of the elements of a film.
ASSOCIATIONAL MONTAGE • The arrangement of shots is intended by a filmmaker to cue a deliberate set of specific intellectual and emotion associations by the viewer
STYLES-The patterned use of transitions, matches and duration can be identified as a cinematic style.CONTINUITY EDITING-A system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action.
MONTAGE-A synonym for editing; emphasizes dynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots and the juxtaposition of images to create ideas not present in either shot by itself.
ELLIPTICAL EDITING-Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipses in plot and story duration.
THE LONG TAKE • A shot of very long duration • Think Swingers; The Player; Touch of Evil
WHAT HAPPENS IF THERE’SNO EDITING? • Alfred Hitchcock, whom we will be studying a great deal with this unit, was a director who relied a lot on editing. He tried to do a film without editing, Rope (1948). • He cut only when he ran out of film (every 10 minutes or so) and tried through elaborate means to hide the cuts when they did occur. The result is an interesting experiment, but a sluggish film that lacks dramatic rhythms and intensity. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJo5ih2HkxE&feature=related