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Editing

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Editing

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  1. Editing

  2. Earth trailer • http://www.apple.com/trailers/disney/earth/trailer_large.html

  3. Editing • Stanley Kubrick: • "I love editing. I think I like it more than any other phase of film making. If I wanted to be frivolous, I might say that everything that precedes editing is merely a way of producing film to edit."

  4. Editing brings together the disparate elements of an electronic text • Film/videotape generated during “production” • Production and postproduction sound • Special effects • Computer-generated Imagery (CGI) or just CG (Computer Graphics) • Lengthy process

  5. Film/video editing • Must produce a coherent narrative from the vast amount of raw footage, etc. • 10:1 shooting ratio common • May be much higher

  6. Goals of editing: Servicing the narrative • The ultimate concern is to make the story as compelling as possible • Realism • Continuity editing • ‘Invisible’ editing

  7. Continuity editing • “A system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action. Continuity editing relies upon matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot. The film supports the viewer's assumption that space and time are contiguous between successive shots.” • Chandler, The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film

  8. Invisible editing • “Gives the impression that the edits are motivated by the events in the 'reality' that the camera is recording rather than the result of a desire to tell a story in a particular way.” • matched cuts (rather than jump cuts) • motivated cuts • changes of shot through camera movement • long takes • the use of the sound bridge • parallel development. • The editing isn't really 'invisible', but the conventions have become so familiar to visual literates that they no longer consciously notice them. • Chandler, The ‘Grammar ‘of Television and Film

  9. 180 Degree Rule

  10. Goals of editing: Style • Style refers to a certain ‘feel’—an emotional/aesthetic approach to presentation • Style provides coherence to the audience experience

  11. Goals of editing: Positioning the viewer • Subjective v. objective • Omniscient v. focalized within a character • Choice of character

  12. Video editing • Frame. A single picture produced by the camera • Shot. A single run of the camera or the piece of film resulting from such a run. • Scene. A dramatic unit that takes place in a continuous time period, in the same setting, and involves the same characters. • Sequence. A dramatic unit composed of several scenes, all linked together by their emotional and narrative momentum. • Chandler, The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film

  13. Matched cuts • “In a 'matched cut' a familiar relationship between the shots may make the change seem smooth: • continuity of direction; • completed action; • a similar centre of attention in the frame; • a one-step change of shot size (e.g. long to medium); • a change of angle (conventionally at least 30 degrees).” • Chandler, The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film

  14. Graphic match • “Two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (e.g., color, shape).” • Yale Film Analysis Guide • Lawrence of Arabia

  15. Motivated cut • “Cut made just at the point where what has occurred makes the viewer immediately want to see something which is not currently visible (causing us, for instance, to accept compression of time). . . . Editing and camera work appear to be determined by the action.” • Chandler, The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film

  16. Establishing/re-establishing shot • A long or medium-length shot followed by a medium or close one • The long shot provides the setting/context for the action and the closer shot reveals the characters, immediate setting, etc. • May move out again to re-establish the context after some time has passed and/or action has occurred

  17. Shot-reverse shot • Used in most scenes where a conversation between two characters is taking place • May be over-the-shoulder shots or character viewpoint shots • Ties sound and visuals together • The camera is usually on the source of the sound—especially in conversation • Breaking the rule often is done to provide a sense of uncertainty, mystery or foreboding

  18. Eye-line shot • The camera focuses first on a character who is looking at something • Usually intense rather than casual look • The subsequent shot focuses on some action, object, person, etc. that is then assumed to be the object of the character’s gaze • May be used when character is looking for something or is surprised by something

  19. Reaction shot • Shot of surprise/reaction on character’s face followed by shot revealing what they were reacting to

  20. Detail revealed • Long or medium-distance shot followed by close-up on detail of importance

  21. Cut-in, cut-away • An instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space, and vice versa. • May provide information unknown to the characters or may provide detail for the audience • May reveal secondary activity simultaneous to main line of action

  22. Breaking the rules • Directors/editors may break the rules (thereby not meeting expectations) for particular effect • Some indicator of breaking expectations may be provided • Change in color indicating flashback

  23. Parallel editing • “Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously. The two actions are therefore linked, associating the characters from both lines of action.” • Yale Film Analysis Guide • Dave • Harold and Maude

  24. Elliptical editing • “Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipses in plot and story duration.” • Yale Film Studies Guide

  25. Jump cut • “An elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot. Either the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background, or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant.” • Yale Film Studies Guide

  26. Montage • Combination of shots of varied subjects, times, etc. that interact to generate a new meaning • Yale Film Analysis Guide • Potemkin • Godfather

  27. Transitions • Cut • Fade in/Fade out • Dissolve • Wipe

  28. Shot duration • The length of shots affects the intensity of the video, the emotional impact, and the level of attention among audience members. • Fast cuts tend to draw attention and increase the emotional intensity of a scene, but can lead to confusion and discomfort • Increasing or decreasing shot length convey falling or rising intensity of action • Equivalence of shot length implies equivalence of importance

  29. Manipulating time • Editing can provide a means for narrative time to diverge from story time • Time compression (cut out the boring bits) • Subjective time (represent the experience of time by one of the characters) • Presentation that allows audience to gain information in ways unavailable through natural time flow • Slow motion • Fast forward • Emotional impact

  30. Manipulating Time • Subjective time. The time experienced or felt by a character in a film, as revealed through camera movement and editing (e.g. when a frightened person's flight from danger is prolonged). • Time compression • Simultaneous time • Extended or expanded time/overlapping action. • Slow/fast motion

  31. Ambiguous time • Universal time

  32. Accelerated motion (undercranking) • Reverse motion • Replay (often in slow motion) • Freeze-frame • Flashback • Often must provide some visual/aural indication of time differential • Flashforward • Less common than flashback

  33. Compositing • Combination of elements from different sources into final product to produce an effect unavailable from a single source • Green screen • CGI

  34. Superimpositions • Writing • Bugs • Insets

  35. Split Screen • The division of the screen into parts which can show the viewer several images at the same time (sometimes the same action from slightly different perspectives, sometimes similar actions at different times). This can convey the excitement and frenzy of certain activities, but it can also overload the viewer. • Chandler, The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film

  36. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmgPotoMaoE&feature=related