Editing The coordination from one shot to the next. Every place and moment has a specific architecture to it. The way this structure is translated to the screen is the mark of the editor.
Creating the Story- editing is the means by which the story is stitched together Narrative Editing- In non improvised narrative editing, the story has been scripted before the edit. The job of the editor is to choose between takes to create a compelling story. Non Fiction Editing- Most documentaries are loosely scripted before the edit but the script is based on the reality of the situation, therefore the job of the editor is to create a narrative from the footage gathered. Shooting ratio- the amount of footage shot to final product. The shooting ratio is much higher in documentary.
Transitions- the film moves between shots Fade in/out Dissolve Wipe Cut
Continuity- tells the story smoothly and provides a “logical” progression. Discontinuity- purposefully abstracts the progression of the edit in a way that might be jarring to the viewer. Jump Cuts in Goddard’s Breathless
Dimensions of Film Editing Graphic Relations Rhythmic Relations Spatial Relations Temporal Relations
Graphic Relations- graphics maybe edited to achieve smooth continuity or abrupt contrast.A match edit is when the graphic contents (color, shape, movement, etc.) of a shot matches the shot that follows or precedes it. It can also be used to create a visual metaphor. 2001 Space Odessy
Rhythmic relations between shots Each shot represents a certain amount of frames of film, which corresponds to the screen time of the shot. The pacing or rhythm of an edit is determined by the duration of the shots. The rhythm of the scene translates into an emotional appeal to the viewer. It can also be a tool for transcendence between time and place.
Sergei Eisenstein Eisenstein believed that film montage could create ideas or have an impact beyond the individual images. Two or more images edited together create a "tertium quid" (third thing) that makes the whole greater than the sum of its individual parts. Odessa Steps
Spatial Relations Between Shots The way in which the space in the frame relates from shot to shot. If a sequence opens with a wide shot it reveals something very different than if something opens with a series of extreme close up.
Temporal relations between shots Editing contributes to the plot’s manipulation of story time. The way time is ordered in the story, whether it is linear or non-linear.
180 degree rule- axis of action Crossing the line refers to an imaginary line which cuts through the middle of the scene, from side to side with respect to the camera. Crossing the line changes the viewer's perspective and may cause disorientation and confusion.