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The Southern Colonies. Chapter 3, Section 1. Cash Crops. Tobacco became the South’s 1 st successful cash crop. Particularly in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. Rice and indigo were important to South Carolina All cash crops were grown on plantations. Tobacco.

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the southern colonies

The Southern Colonies

Chapter 3, Section 1

cash crops
Cash Crops
  • Tobacco became the South’s 1st successful cash crop. Particularly in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina.
  • Rice and indigo were important to South Carolina
  • All cash crops were grown on plantations
  • Demand was greater than supply- Plantation owners became wealthy
  • Transported on ships around the Chesapeake Bay
  • Required many workers to cultivate tobacco
indentured servants
Indentured Servants
  • High unemployment rate in England
  • Shortage of workers in America
  • The English were offered passage to America in exchange for a set period of service. The contract was often 4-7 years.
  • Gained freedom and land when their term was finished
  • High mortality (death) rate
planter elite
Planter Elite
  • Wealthy landowners; had a lot of political and economic influence
  • At first: small plantations and everyone worked side-by-side
  • As plantations switched to slave labor the plantations grew and owners became more wealthy
backcountry farmers
Backcountry Farmers
  • Indentured servants
  • Owned the land further inland- closer to Indian territory
  • Worked on small farms and lived in tiny homes
  • Relied upon subsistence farming
the bottom
The bottom
  • Landless tenant farmers (indentured servants)
  • Indentured servants- still in service
  • Enslaved Africans
  • ******Uneven distribution of wealth**********
sir william berkeley
Sir William Berkeley
  • Controlled Virginia through the House of Burgesses
    • Exempted friends for paying taxes
    • Restricted vote to property owners
    • Angered back country and tenant farmers
leading up to the rebellion
Leading up to the Rebellion
  • Wealthy landowners in the Tidewater region
  • Wealthy did NOT support expanding colony into Indian Territory
    • They feared the repercussions
  • 1675- war between Backcountry farmers and Susquehannock people
  • Berkeley did NOT support farmers
bacon s rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Backcountry farmers, led by Nathanial Bacon, raised a militia and attacked Natives
  • In an effort to “fix things” the House of Burgesses authorized Bacon the right to raise troops- Berkeley restored the right to vote and removed tax exemptions
  • Bacon- still mad- returned to Jamestown with a militia and seized power. Charged Berkeley with corruption

Berkeley raised his own army and the two fought for months until Bacon died

  • Rebellion convinced many that slavery was a better option than indentured servants
slaves vs indentured servants
Slaves vs. Indentured Servants
  • Reasons for the switch:
    • Slaves didn’t need to be released and didn’t need land
    • Fewer English settlers were willing to become indentured servants
    • Laws changed making the slave trade easier
the slave trade
The Slave Trade
  • Africans were forcibly removed from West Africa
  • Europeans traded guns for enslaved Africans
  • Slaves were crammed on ships and transported across the Atlantic Ocean= MIDDLE PASSAGE
  • Those that died or became ill were thrown overboard

1st Africans were brought to Virginia in 1619

  • Treated like indentured servants- they did not have slavery at the time
  • Many Africans converted to Christianity
  • As more Africans arrived their status changed
slave codes
Slave Codes
  • Laws that regulated and defined slavery
  • Became more strict over time
  • Limited the rights of Africans in the colonies