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  2. The Wuchang Rebellion • Rebellion Breaks Out After Police Brutality • Sworn Chinese Brotherhood Takes Action • New Army Joins in the Uprising on the Double Tenth • Manchus Bring Back Yuan Shikai to Deal with Rebels

  3. The Contest for Leadership

  4. The Contest for Leadership Yuan Shikai Sun Yatsen

  5. The Edict of Abdication Today the people of the whole Empire have their minds bent on a Republic, the southern provinces have begun the movement, and the northern generals have subsequently supported it. The will of Providence is clear and the people’s wishes are plain. How could I, for the sake of glory and honor of one family, oppose the wishes of teeming millions? Wherefore I, with the Emperor, decide that the form of government in China shall be a constitutional Republic.

  6. Warlord China, 1912 - 1927 • President Yuan Shikai and the Constitutional Republic • Sun Yatsen and the National Assembly • Formation of the Kuomintang • Yuan Shikai Dissolves National Assembly in 1914 – Sun Yatsen Flees, Calls for 2nd Revolution

  7. Warlord China, 1912-1927 • 1915 – Yuan Shikai Names Himself Emperor and a New Dynasty • Three Sources of Opposition: Kuomintang, Warlords, Japanese • Japanese Government Presents the Twenty-One Demands

  8. The Warlords: 1916-1927

  9. A small, fat man with a jovial and craft countenance…shook hands with me and bade me welcome in impeccable French. “The Marshal will receive you shortly. We are preparing an offensive, and he is still in conference with his generals. But I am going to let him know you are here. I am M. Wuching (Foreign Minister).” To kill time we struck up a conversation. “What do you think of our capital, and of our streets? The Marshal, you know, insists on cleanliness and order.” The city, I must say, was well policed. I remember seeing two heads, still dripping with blood, swaying in a fisherman’s net by the door of a theater: two soldiers had been executed there for having disregarded the law that forbade them to enter without paying. M. Wuching probably read my thoughts: “What else could we do? Stern punishments are salutary warnings to any mutineers. Pity is the unforgivable when it comes to setting an example…Do drink your tea please, and have a cigarette.”

  10. Civil War: 1920 & 1922 700 Yunnan men stripped; some were entirely naked, some naked to the waist. Armed with knives and revolvers they rushed the Sichuan camp of 16,000 men at the foot of the hills. The attack was a complete success. Panic seized regiment after regiment and the whole force fled…About 10 of these heroes…were captured, naked as they were, kept in the streets on show in cold drenching rain before being murdered. Two were killed and cut up in the streets, and I saw hearts and livers in the cookshop. - Extract from British Council in Chengdu about an attack in 1920.