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CHINA
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CHINA

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  1. “Let China sleep. For when China wakes, it will shake the world.” --Napoleon CHINA Part 1: The Making of the Modern State

  2. Why do we study China? • Unique history greatly shapes political culture • One of the few remaining communist nations • Successful move towards capitalism BUT remains highly authoritarian • Questions to ponder… • Will democratization follow economic reform success? • Will human rights violations keep China from global partnerships? • What type of change (if any) will Xi Jinping bring?

  3. Geography Basics • Officially, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) • 4th largest country • 9,596,961 sqmi • Less than 15% of land good for agriculture • Largest population • 1.3 billion • *23 provinces • 5 autonomous regions • 4 centrally administered cities • 2 Special Administrative Regions (SAR)

  4. Ethnic Groups in China - 91.5% = Han Chinese - 8% = 55 other nationalities (most live in geopolitically sensitive areas) - Language = Mandarin • 55% of people live in rural areas • Balance b/w people and need to feed them still a major concern

  5. Renminbi (RMB); also called yuan Exchange rate: US$1 = 6.79 RMB

  6. Critical Junctures: Confucius • Imperial China (2000 years) & Confucianism • Harmony, order, and peace • Five duties of universal obligation or basic human relations • Obedience to Authority, Hierarchy, Meritocracy • Civil service was created • Had to pass exams based on Confucian ethics • Ethnocentrism

  7. Critical Junctures: Confucius • Discussion Question: What elements of Confucianism do you think can be found in modern Chinese political culture?

  8. Critical Junctures: Confucius • Discussion Question: What elements of Confucianism do you think can be found in modern Chinese political culture? • Obedience to authority – acceptance of authoritarian rule • Hierarchy – structure of the CCP

  9. Critical Junctures: The Republic of China • 1839 -1949: Century of Humiliation • Economic stagnation/poverty • Increased pressure from the outside/imperialism • Dynastic rule ends • Nationalism rises • Revolution! (1911-12) Establishes Republic of China • Sun Yat-sen became President • Believed in nationalism, democracy, & social welfare • Could not hold power • Warlords rule Sun Yat-sen Father of the RepublicFather of the Revolution

  10. Critical Junctures: The Republic of China • 1911 – 1949 Two political forces vie for power: • The Nationalist Party (KMT) • Led by Sun Yat-Sen • Focused on resisting foreign influence • Favored modernization and reform • Eventually led by Chiang Kai-Shek • Chinese Communist Party (CCP, founded 1921) • Led by Mao Zedong • By 1928, the CCP was forced West out of the cities and into the countryside Chiang Kai-Shek Leader of Nationalist

  11. Critical Junctures: The People’s Republic of China • 1934-1935: The Long March • Mao & supporters flee from Nationalist forces & gain support in the countryside • 1941-1945: World War II • Communists more successful against Japan • 1949: The People’s Liberation Army marches into Beijing unopposed, establishing the People’s Republic of China (PRC) • The Nationalists fled to Taiwan, where they established the Republic of China (ROC)

  12. Critical Junctures: Maoism • Maoism – form of communism that believed in the strength of the peasant • Key Values: • Collectivism • Struggle and Activism • Egalitarianism • Self-Reliance • Mass Line: leaders would communicate their will/direction to people, but people would communicate through mass line their wisdoms to leaders

  13. Critical Junctures: Maoism • The Soviet Model (1949-1957): • Land Reform • Redistributed property from rich to poor and increased productivity in countryside • Civil Reform • Free people from Opium addiction • Enhanced women’s legal rights • Five-Year Plans • Nationalized industry • Collectivized agriculture • Private property eliminated

  14. Critical Junctures: Maoism • Discussion Question: Compare how the Communist Party came to power in China with how it came to power in Russia – how was it different? • How was Maoism similar to Marxist-Leninism in the Soviet Union? Different?

  15. Critical Junctures: Maoism • Discussion Question: Compare how the Communist Party came to power in China with how it came to power in Russia – how was it different? • China: Communists won popular support by defeating Japan in WWII and then defeating the Nationalists in a civil war and then established a communist state, the PRC, which replaced the republic of 1911 • Russia: Bolsheviks led a communist revolution & overthrew the czar • How was Maoism similar to Marxist-Leninism in the Soviet Union? Different? • Similar: Democratic Centralism (Communist Party best directs needs of the masses); collectivization; nationalized industry • Different: Mao valued strength of peasant, instituted mass line

  16. Critical Junctures: Maoism • The Great Leap Forward (1958-1966) • Wanted to free China from Soviet domination • Utopian effort to transform China into a radical egalitarian society • Reorganizes China into communes that would serve all basic social and economic functions • Backyard furnaces • Red vs. Expert • Failure - Famine

  17. Critical Junctures: Maoism • The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) • Goal – remove all vestiges of “old” China and its inequality • Scholars sent to fields to work • Universities/libraries destroyed • Emphasis on elementary education only • Student radicals (Red Guard) lead a purging of “class enemies”

  18. Critical Junctures: Maoism • 1976: Mao dies leaving followers divided into factions • Radicals – led by Mao’s wife • One of the “Gang of Four” who supported radical goals of cultural revolution • Military • Moderates – moderates who emphasized economic modernization and some contact with other other countries • Moderates win and arrest Gang of Four • Crash Course World History – China’s Revolutions

  19. “It doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.” -Deng Xiaoping DENG XIAOPING Economic Reform

  20. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • Discussion Question: Deng Xiaoping has a famous quote… • “It doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.” • What does this mean?

  21. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • Discussion Question: Deng Xiaoping has a famous quote… • “It doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.” • What does this mean? • It doesn’t matter if a policy is socialist or capitalist if it helped the economy.

  22. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • 1979: Deng Xiaoping takes control of the Communist Party • Four Modernizations • industry, agriculture, science & military • Open Door Trade policy • Reforms in Education • Restored legal system/bureaucracy of Old China

  23. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • Socialist Market Economy • Household Responsibility System • Replaced communes • After paying taxes/contract fees to govt, families may consume/sell what they produce • More Economic Liberalization • Special Economic Zones (SEZs) • Promote foreign investment • Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs)

  24. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • Economic Success: • Fastest-growing major economy in the world for more than two decades • GDP per capita grew at avg rate of a little over 9% per year from 1990-2009 • Economic Problems: • No more “iron rice bowl” – cradle to grave benefits • Unemployment • Inequality • Floating Population – urban migration

  25. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • China embraced market reforms, gradually moving away from a command economy, but did NOT embrace political or democratic reform • 1989: Tiananmen Square protests • Large scale demonstrations, espamong students and intellectuals for more political freedoms • Used army to crack down on protests • Death toll has not been revealed

  26. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • Discussion Question: Classify the following as ideas under Mao Zedong (MZ) or Deng Xiaoping (DX) or Both (B): • Allowed foreign investment • Iron Rice Bowl • Communes • Open Door trade policy • Education limited to elementary school • No private property allowed • Household Responsibility System • Egalitarianism pursued • Market socialism • Believed Communist Party leadership should not be challenged

  27. Critical Junctures: Deng Xiaoping • Discussion Question: Classify the following as ideas under Mao Zedong (MZ) or Deng Xiaoping (DX) or Both (B): • Allowed foreign investment (DX) • Iron Rice Bowl (MZ) • Communes (MZ) • Open Door trade policy (DX) • Education limited to elementary school (MZ) • No private property allowed (MZ) • Household Responsibility System (DX) • Egalitarianism pursued (MZ) • Market socialism (DX) • Believed Communist Party leadership should not be challenged (B)

  28. Critical Junctures: Technocrats • After Deng dies, rise of technocrats • Career-minded bureaucrats who administer public policy according to technical rather than a political rationale • Professional competence & political loyalty • Jiang Zemin (1993-2003) • Hu Jintao (2003-2013) • Xi Jinping (2013 - ?) • All had university training in engineering • All were “groomed” by top leaders to move up in ranks http://youtu.be/kdCgIHgu-KE

  29. PRC: 1949 – Today “Hot Communism” Under Mao, China constantly was reinventing itself through massive movements and revolutionary ideals Mao was focused on the peasants and devalued the educated and modern Mao’s vision brought China to the brink of third world status by the 1970’s Deng Xiaoping created the blueprint for modern China (1979) USSR: 1917 – 1991 “Cold Communism” Soviet communism was monolithic and stoic, dominated by rigid beliefs and distant leaders Lenin, Stalin and the CCP were elitists and depended upon a nomenklatura system to select the leadership, the people and peasants were expected to follow and obey (“1984”) Cold War competition with the USA exhausted the system economically Gorbachev – Perestrokia and Glasnost (1985) Soviet Union vs. People’s Republic of China:Two Takes on Communism

  30. Communist Party & Capitalist Economy The Government & The Party The Government & The People’s Liberation Army The Industrial/Modern Coast & The Rural Interior Party calls the shots The Politburo No single powerful executive as with Russia Influence of Deng Xiaoping China was exhausted from grand, massive Maoist schemes and plans Slow change under Deng – constant, rational reform over the long term Great growth due to this, but can China remain strong with so many parallel structures and systems? Challenge to the West Healthy? Economic competition lifts all? Conflict? US debt issue? The Dual SystemChina has many parallel systems

  31. Background • New economic pragmatism – Deng Xiaoping (1978 – 1994) • Economic growth highest priority • Communist Party’s main assignment • Retreated from government’s direct administration of the economy – Slow, steady change (not Shock Therapy) • Superiority of capitalism • Socialist market economy • But have rejected political pluralism • Tolerates no challenge to the Communist Party’s monopoly on political power • Lack of democratization and political freedoms – yet high rates of globalization and economic growth – CAN THIS CONTINUE? • Institutionalization in China • Promote more transparency, stability, and responsiveness • To encourage investment and innovation • Safeguard against arbitrary dictatorships and disruptive politics • Better crafted laws, new legality, more assertive representative assemblies, and popularly elected grassroots leaders

  32. Current Policy Challenges • Political corruption, rural unrest, growing wealth gap, and severe pollution • Fostering economic growth and deliver a better material life for Chinese citizens • Economy has grown at a rate of nearly 10 percent per year since 1980 • Economic success has not been costless • Corruption • Rural reform • Land not privately owned, but contracted for agricultural use by Chinese farmers • Farmers poorly compensated • Growing wealth gap • Public disturbances • China has thoroughly abandoned the strictures of communist ideology; experienced an awesome economic revolution. • Opened up political processes to most diversified inputs • But have also firmly suppressed organized challenges to the Communist Party

  33. Social Conditions • Huge population • World’s most populous country • Most live in the countryside, but now that is only 57% compared to 85% in 1980 • Rural industrialization and growth of towns • Rural collective industry is the most dynamic industrial sector • The population is concentrated in the eastern third of the land • Only ¼ of China’s land is arable • Land shortage/reduction in cultivated area • Land is used for property borders, burial grounds, and bigger houses. • So the problem of feeding the large population is expected to continue

  34. Structure of the Party State • Design Features • Guardianship • Describes the main relationship between the Communist Party and society • Representation of “historical best interests” • Mass line • Party Organization • Democratic centralism – Leninist principle • Refers mainly to consultation: opportunities for discussion, criticism, and proposals in party organizations • Two Hierarchies, with Party Leadership • Division of labor between party and government structures

  35. Chinese Communist Party AP Comparative Government - Schwenk - China Unit

  36. The Chinese Capitalist Party AP Comparative Government - Schwenk - China Unit They’re not fooling anyone anymore Massive free market growth and opportunity Outside investment Competition Foreign Trade Party still controls policy issues and central banking • This is NOT Mao’s China • Questions: • Will the Party survive? • Will growth lead to democracy? • Will a lack of growth destabilize the system and country? • China’s explosive growth has put vast pressure on the Party to keep it up

  37. Political Economy and Development • China Goes to Market 1. most cases state no longer dictates a. prices = supply and demand b. state-owned = steel, petroleum, telecommunications, and transportation 1. drain on banks c. private sector = fastest growing in the world 1990-2009 China GDP/Capita = 9% U.S. GDP/Capita = 1.5% 2010 China $7,400 U.S. $47,500

  38. 2. Officially PRC says it is a Socialist Market Economy • Remaking the Countryside 1. Household Responsibility System a. production

  39. Society and Economy 1. Social Welfare Changes a. Iron Rice Bowl b. work and income now c. unemployment officially 4% more likely 2-3x higher 2. floating population a. pressure on housing and social services

  40. 3. income gap between coastal regions and inland/countryside 4. Gender inequalities a. market reforms have led to greater inequalities b. Rural = men get land contracts, etc. Urban = women more low paying, tedious jobs

  41. Family Planning in China 5. One Child Policy a. patriotic and economic benefits of small families b. incentive based c. punishment d. belief that male children will contribute more = infanticide, abandonment, sex-selective abortion, etc. • 144 years for China’s population to double at current rate! - Nigeria 36 years - India 50

  42. 6. Opportunities for Corruption a. officials still have control over many transactions = large profits to be made b. graft c. Consumer Product Safety

  43. 7. Environmental Impact of Economic Reforms a. fuel of industrial expansion = coal b. air quality, soil erosion, water shortages, and deforestation c. little regulation of garbage dumping or toxic waste

  44. China in the Global Economy • 1980s = trade as central component to economic development • China model a. low-wage domestic labor + production of goods in demand internationally = use earning to modernize economy 3. “factory of the world” 4. 2nd largest trading nation 5. Imports machinery, high-level technology, iron, steel, and raw materials 6. Foreign investment up a. 400 of top 500 corporations have operations in China 7. Huge domestic market = Coca-cola, GM, Starbucks, Walmart, US tobacco

  45. Meet the New Bosses….. China's new Politburo Standing Committee members: Leader of China Communist Party Xi Jinping (centre), (clockwise from top left) Zhang Dejiang, Li Keqiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan, Zhang Gaoli AP Comparative Government - Schwenk - China Unit

  46. Structure of the Party State: CCP Structures • National Party Congress (NPC) • Elected for five-year terms by delegates in provincial-level congresses and the armed forces • Assemble once every 5 • large body- 2100 members • Symbolic role; no legislative check on executive leadership Central Committee • elected to 5 year terms by NPC • Meet annually for a week (plenums) Politiburo and the Standing Committee • General Secretary of S.C. = Party Leader • Not accountable to any other institution