Chapter 14 China
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Politics in Action • 2010: Liu Xiaobo—first Chinese citizen to win Nobel Peace Prize • “For his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China” • Liu, however, could not attend Oslo, Norway ceremony since he was in a Chinese prison. • China remains world’s harshest dictatorships • Authoritarian political system is ominous.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Geographic Setting • Comprised of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 centrally administered cities, and 2 special administrative regions • Autonomous region—In PRC, territorial unit equivalent to province having large concentration of ethnic minorities with some autonomy in cultural sphere, but in most policy matters strictly subordinate to the central government. • China is rich in natural resources, particularly coal and petroleum. • Also, world’s greatest potential for hydroelectric power • Less than fifteen percent of land is usable for agriculture. • Countryside plays important role in political development. • Population centered around eastern seaboard, three rivers • More than fifty ethnic minorities, most living in border regions • Contributes to tension with central government
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Critical Junctures • People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. • Must look at history, which can be divided into three periods: • Imperial period (221 B.C.–1911 A. D.)—China ruled by series of dynasties and emperors. • Republican period (1912–1949)—China plagued by civil war and foreign invasion. • Communist period (1949–present) • Chinese empire first took political shape in 221 B.C.E. • Small kingdoms were unified under first emperor. • China ruled by numerous family-based dynasties.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Critical Junctures (Cont’d) • Foundation of imperial system that lasted until 1911 • Traditional order supported by influence of Confucianism • Stresses importance of group over individual, deference to superiors, importance of education, need to maintain social harmony, responsibility of rulers to govern benevolently • Effective national government with merit-based bureaucracy • Examinations were on mastery of teachings of Confucianism. • Imperial China experienced internal rebellions. • Some led to overthrow of ruling dynasty. • New dynasty built on traditional foundations
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Critical Junctures (Cont’d) • Late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century empire faced combination of internal crises and external challenges. • Population explosion led to economic stagnation. • Corruption and exploitation caused social unrest. • European powers surpassed China in industrial and military development. • Pressed China to open its markets to foreign trade • Opium War (1839–1842) defeat forced China to sign unequal treaties to open borders. • 1911–1912: Revolution overthrew dynasty; end to 2000-year-old empire.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Warlords, Nationalists, and Communists (1912–1949) • Republic of China established in 1912. • Revolutionary Sun Yat-sen became president, but could not hold on to power. • China fell into conflict and disintegration. • Parts of country were run by rival warlords. • Sun started revolution to unify country under Nationalist Party. • Chinese Communist Party (CCP) organized in 1921 by intellectuals inspired by Russian revolution and supported by Soviet Union • Joined with the Nationalist Party to fight warlords • Chiang Kai-shek became leader of Nationalist Party, turned against communist partners, and unified Republic. • Struck deals with warlords
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Warlords, Nationalists, and Communists (1912–1949) (Cont’d) • Communist Party relocated headquarters into countryside. • Created conditions for Mao Zedong’s rise to power • Advocated peasants as support for revolution • Consolidated power, sometimes ruthlessly • 1934: Chiang Kai-shek’s army began 6,000 mile journey called the Long March. • Implemented land reform and policies to benefit peasants • 1937: Japan invaded China. • Pushed Nationalist government to southwestern part of country, eliminating it as active combatant • Successfully mobilized peasants in guerrilla warfare—Strategy based on small bands of soldiers (guerrillas) who use hit-and-run tactics to attack a superior and better-armed enemy.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Warlords, Nationalists, and Communists (1912–1949) (Cont’d) • Communist Party expanded membership and developed military force by end of World War II. • Controlled countryside in north • Nationalists unpopular due to corruption, repression, and economic mismanagement. • Chiang Kai-shek retreated to island of Taiwan. • October, 1949: Mao Zedong declared the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Mao Zedong in Power (1949–1976) • Communist Party seen as social reformers, patriotic fighters. • Chairman Mao and Party addressed country’s problems: • Redistribution of land increased agricultural production. • Drives to eliminate opium addiction and prostitution • National law to enhance status of women
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Mao Zedong in Power (1949–1976) (Cont’d) • Between 1953 and 1957: PRC and Soviet Union implemented centrally planned economy and took steps towards socialism. • Centrally planned economy—An economic system in which the state directs the economy through a series of bureaucratic plans for the production and distribution of goods and services. The government, rather than the market, is the major influence on the economy. Also called a command economy. • Socialism —the state plays a leading role in organizing the economy, and most business firms are publicly owned. In Marxism-Leninism, socialism refers to early stage in the development of communism.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Mao Zedong in Power (1949–1976) (Cont’d) • Private property overtaken by government and collectivizationof agriculture • Collectivization—Agricultural land removed from private ownership and organized into state and collective farms. • Achieved economic success • Increased bureaucracy and inequalities persisted.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Mao Zedong in Power (1949–1976) (Cont’d) • Great Leap Forward (1958–1960) • Mao’s discontent with direction of People’s Republic of China • Utopian effort to accelerate economic development and move toward true communism • Communism—A system of social organization based on the common ownership and coordination of production. In China, the Communist Party, which has controlled the state and society in an authoritarian manner, and have applied Marxism-Leninism to justify their rule. • Relied on labor power and revolutionary enthusiasm of masses • Irrational policies, wasted resources, lack of incentives for hard work, and bad weather led to famine. • Industrial depression followed.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Mao Zedong in Power (1949–1976) (Cont’d) • Early 1960s: Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping took charge. • Revived economy by abandoning strategy of Great Leap for combination of government planning and market-oriented policies to stimulate production • Mao became unhappy with social and political development. • Perceived resurgence of elitism and inequality • Also, believed China was moving toward capitalism. • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) • Ideological crusade to restore Mao’s vision of socialism and communism • Objectives: political purification through class struggle • Created Red Guards to support him and attack anyone betraying Mao Zedong Thought
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Mao Zedong in Power (1949–1976) (Cont’d) • Cultural Revolution first phase (1966–1969) • Red Guard rampage • Destroyed cultural artifacts as symbols of China’s imperial past. • Harassed, tortured, killed those accused of being class enemies • Cultural Revolution second phase (1969–1971) • People’s Liberation Army to restore political order • Red Guards sent to countryside. • Cultural Revolution final phase (1972–1976) • Factional conflict over Mao’s successor • 1976: Mao dies. • Moderate leaders staged coup d'état, and arrested Gang of Four, marking end of Cultural Revolution.
The Making of the Modern China State • Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of Chinese Communism (1977–1997) • Deng became most powerful leader but appointed younger, loyal men to positions. • Reduced state economic controls; increased market forces • Encouraged private enterprise; foreign investment • Strong economic growth through 1980s; international acclaim • Inflation, corruption, desire for political freedom challenged Communist Party in 1989. • Large scale demonstrations; media coverage • Communist Party decided to use force at Tiananmen Square. • Years of political repression and economic slowdown • Deng took steps to accelerate economic reform, avoid collapse of communist system in 1992.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • From Revolutionaries to Technocrats (1997 to the Present) • Deng replaced head of Communist Party. • Gradually turned power over to Jiang Zemin, who succeeded Deng on his death • Jiang continued economic reforms and growth. • China became integral part of global economy. • Enhanced its regional and international stature • Politically stable although problems of unemployment, corruption, inequality
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • From Revolutionaries to Technocrats (1997 to the Present) • Hu Jintao succeeded Jiang in 2002. • Both were technocrats as opposed to revolutionaries. • Technocrats —Administer public policy according to a technical rather than a political rationale. • First orderly transfer of power • Hu places emphasis on socioeconomic problems but takes hard line of political dissent. • 2008: Xi Jinping being groomed as Hu’s successor. • Also a technocrat • Little reason to expect change
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Themes and Implications • Historical Junctures and Political Themes • The World of States • Weak international position in1949 • Destiny had been shaped by incursions and influences it could not control. • Mao built strong state able to affirm and defend its sovereignty. • International stature has increased with economic and military growth. • Poor, but size of economy makes it a powerhouse • Import and export policies influential • Nuclear power with largest conventional military force • Active in most international organizations
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Governing the Economy • Experimented with different economic systems: Soviet-style planning 1950s, Mao’s radical egalitarianism, and Deng’s market-oriented policies • Ideological disputes over development strategies resulted in political struggles. • Ability of leaders to successfully govern economy has maintained the Communist Party. • The Democratic Idea • Deng rule brought greater economic, social, cultural freedom. • Communist Party suppressed democratic idea. • Jiang and Hu have championed economic reform but ensured the Communist Party’s control of power.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • The Politics of Collective Identity • China has a strong sense of collective national identity. • Memories of past foreign encounters continue to influence China’s international relations. • As communist ideology weakens and capitalism strengthens, leaders use nationalism to rally government support. • Cultural and ethnic homogeneity have prevented widespread communal violence. • Exception is in border regions with large concentration of minorities.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN CHINA STATE • Implications for Comparative Politics • In comparison with communist party-states and developing nations: • Communist party-states —A type of nation-state in which the Communist Party attempts to exercise a complete monopoly on political power and controls all important state institutions. • China is part of Third World according to standard of living measurements, but record of economic growth exceeds other developing countries. • Educational and health levels are comparatively good. • China has not embraced democracy like other developing countries.
SECTION 2POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • State and Economy • By 1949, China’s economy was suffering from one hundred years of rebellion, invasion, civil war, and bad government. • Communist Party stabilized and revitalized economy • Private ownership and capitalism allowed to continue • When production restored, moved to Soviet model • Command economy—government controlled production and distribution of goods and services. • Five Year Plan yielded results but grew bureaucracy and inequalities. • Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution embodied Maoist approach to economic development. • Mao economy plagued by political interference, poor management, and ill-conceived projects.
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • China Goes to Market • Under Deng, politics and ideology second to economic goals • Introduced capitalist-style free market policies • Redefined role of Communist Party in governing economy • Individuals encouraged to work harder and more efficiently to make money • In most sectors government no longer dictates. • Prices set according to supply and demand. • Competition between state-owned and non-state-owned firms • Communist Party encourages private business. • State-owned enterprises still exist; e.g., steel, petroleum. • Private businesses—sometimes called “red capitalists” encouraged to join Communist Party • Private sector is largest and fastest growing in economy.
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • China Goes to Market (Cont’d) • Fastest growing major economy for three decades • Consumer revolution, new middle and upper classes • Officially,socialist market economy, not fully free market • Socialist market economy—Refers to country’s current economic system. It is meant to convey the mix of state control (socialism) and market forces (capitalism) that China is now following in its quest for economic development. The implication is that socialism will promote equality, while the market (especially the profit motive) will encourage people to work hard and foreign companies to invest. • In theory, market subordinate to state and party
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • Remaking the Chinese Countryside • 1949: Communist Party launched land reform program. • 1950 : Peasants were reorganized into collectives and communes. • Crops sold to state at low fixed price • Agricultural production and living standards stagnant 1957–1977 • Deng abolished collective farming and established household responsibility system, which is still in effect. • Household responsibility system—System in which major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on the profit motive rather than by a people’s commune or the government. • Long-term contracts, move to privatize • Sharp increase in productivity and income
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • Society and Economy • Chinese society made more diverse and open by market reform and globalization • Free to choose jobs, travel, practice religious beliefs, and so on • Economic change also caused social problems. • Crime, prostitution, drug use • Economic reform changed social welfare system. • Maoist economy characterized by iron rice bowl—provided guarantees of lifetime employment, income, and basic cradle-to-grave benefits to most urban and rural workers. • Breaking of iron rice bowl • Reformers believed that such guarantees were costly and poor motivators and so income and employment are no longer guaranteed. • Rural social services safety net disappearing • Public health system, once a model, now in shambles
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • Society and Economy (Cont’d) • Market reforms opened cities to rural immigrants. • Floating population of migrant workers is filling important role but burdening housing and social services. • Population no longer constrained by limits to internal movement • Opportunities for corruption • Market reforms and economic boom created inequalities between urban and rural areas. • Sustainable development is part of party-state’s current emphasis on “harmonious socialist society”—emphasizes not only achieving a higher average standard of living for the whole country, but also a more equitable distribution of income and social services.
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • Society and Economy (Cont’d) • Gender inequalities have also increased. • Although china has one of the world’s highest rates of female participation in the urban workforce, women are in lower-paid and subordinate positions in the work force. • China has unique and stringent population policy. • One-child policy • Positive incentive: More farmland or preferred housing for one-child households • Negative: Fines and loss of jobs; forced abortion, sterilization, female infanticide and abandonment of female babies (to make sure their one child is a son and heir) • Exception: Two children, if first is a girl; Tibet can have four children
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT • Society and Economy (Cont’d) • Population policy results in unusual gender imbalance. • 120:100 males to females • Extreme gender imbalance likely to cause rise in social instability, violent crime, and gang formation. • Economic boom also created enormous opportunities for corruption. • Consumer product safety and quality control in Chinese exports • Involving toys, pet food, tires, tooth paste, and powdered milk • Economic growth has damaged environment. • Loss of arable land, water shortages, and deforestation • China has become leader in development of alternative clean energy, including wind and solar power.
Political Economy and Development • China in the Global Economy • China was not a major trading nation in 1978. • Became one of Deng’s major goals • China is now second largest trading nation. • Enormous growth but lack of effective regulation in many sectors • China mostly imports industrial machinery, high-level technology and scientific equipment, iron and steel, and raw materials. • Net importer of oil due to energy demands • Foreign investment has also skyrocketed. • Huge domestic market: For example—Coca-Cola, General Motors, Starbucks, Wal-Mart, and Philip Morris. • Economic growth, expanding trade and investment, and vast resource base has made China a rising economic superpower.
SECTION 3GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • Organization of the State • China is one of five remaining communist party-states. • Characterized by Communist Party domination of all government and social institutions, official Marxist-Leninist ideology, state control of economy • Chinese Communist Party claims only it can govern in best interests of entire nation. • Still asserts it is building socialism with goal of egalitarian and classless society • Constitution states underlying principles of party-state. • States under “leadership of Communist Party of China” • Defines China as “a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship.” • Implies democratic rights and privileges, but gives Communist Party authority to repress opposition to socialism or party
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • Organization of the State (Cont’d) • Officially Marxism-Leninism still important to party-state • Mao adapted Marxism-Leninism to China by emphasizing role of peasants in revolution. • Communist Party admits Mao made mistakes but praises “Mao Zedong Thought.” • Communist ideology still provides framework for governance and policymaking. • Constitution is more political statement than governing document. • Changes reflect political changes and reflect ideology of prevailing party leadership. • Mao era: Stressed class struggle and continuing revolution • Current: Emphasizes national unity and economic development
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • CCP Organization (Cont’d) • National Party Congress and Central Committee are highest bodies of the Chinese Communist Party according to its constitution. • National Party Congress meets one week every five years. • More symbolic than substantive • Approves decisions made by top leaders • Little debate or contested voting • Not a legislative check • Central Committee meets annually for one week. • Members elected for five year term by National Party Congress • Secret ballot but limited choice • Composition controlled by top leaders • Significant gathering of party elite • Arena for political maneuvering and decision making
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • CCP Organization (Cont’d) • The most powerful political organizations in China’s communist party-state are the two small executive bodies at the very top of the CCP’s structure: the Politburo(Political bureau; 25 members) and Standing Committee (9 members). • Elected by Central Committee under carefully controlled and secretive conditions • Chairman of the Standing Committee was top position in party prior to 1982. • Title was abolished in 1982 to symbolize break with Mao’s style of leadership.
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • CCP Organization (Cont’d) • General secretary is party’s leader. • Presides over Politburo and Standing Committee • Governs as part of collective leadership • Position held by Jiang Xemins (1989-2002) and Hu Jintao (2002 to present) • Top leaders are well-educated. • Evidence of shift from revolutionary leaders to technocrats • Politboro and Standing Committee not accountable to Central Committee or any other institution • Operations are secretive. • Leaders work and live in heavily guarded and walled compound called Zhongnanhai (“Middle and Southern Seas”).
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • CCP Organization (Cont’d) • Secretariat • Manages daily work of Politburo and Standing Committee • Coordinates party’s structure • Authority in organizational and personnel matters • Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) • Monitors members’ compliance with Communist Party’s constitution and rules • Recently used to fight corruption • Minor offenses get reprimand or probation while serious offenses are turned over to the courts.
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING • CCP Organization (Cont’d) • Subnationally the Communist Party has hierarchy of local organizations. • Each is headed by party secretary and party committee. • Primary organizations are called branches.