Words to Know Nationalism Cultural Revolution Long March Great Leap Forward Chiang Kai-Shek Republic of China (ROC, Tiawan) People’s Republic of China (PRC) Communist Party of China (CPC)
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) was a • Chinese military and political leader, • led Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory in the Chinese Civil War • leader of People’s Republic of China (PRC). • Very respected in China even though his leadership resulted in the deaths of millions of people
Mao was born to a peasant family He was still a student when the revolution of 1911-1912 overthrew the Manchu government and made China a republic. While he was employed as a library worker at the National University in Beijing (Peking) in 1918, Mao became attracted to the ideas of Communism. In 1921, Mao and 11 other people founded the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai.
Brief overview of Communism:Karl Marx Karl Marx (1818-1883), German political philosophercreated Marxism. With political economist Friedrich Engels, he founded scientific socialism (now known as communism) Communism Video
Brief overview of Communism:Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader Lenin led Russia to become a communist nation after studying Marxism
Interactive Notebook Question (Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share • Why do you think Mao chose communism over other forms of government?
Graphic Organizer Peasant Family University Student Mao Zedong
Overtime China fell into a civil war between groups supporting democracy, monarchy, and communism. Eventually, two groups formed the main struggled for power. At first the Kuomintang (Nationalist/Democratic) and the Communists tried to work together to make China a better place. However, the Kuomintang decided to attack the communists and attempted to kill most of their followers.
Kuomintang (who?!)and the Communists attempted to work together to make China better, but it didn’t work! They attacked the communists. • Kuomintang-Nationalist (democratic) • Mao Zedong survived • retreated (what does that mean?) to gather additional peasants for support.
Nationalist China • leader Chiang Kai-shek Democratic Leader, US supported. ( REVIEW eventually attacked ____.)
In 1934, Mao led the Communists in what is called The Long March. The 6,000-mile • march lasted over a year and made the survivors a very loyal and close group under Mao's leadership.
Graphic Organizer Peasant Family University Student Mao Zedong The Long March Violent Revolution Theory
Interactive Notebook Question (Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share (Pick one to answer) • Which side did the U.S. support and why? • How did the Long March make Mao’s stronger in China?
In the middle of the Chinese Civil War, Japan invaded China causing the start of WWII. Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong were forced to work together, along with the U.S., against the Japanese. (Story time!)
Graphic Organizer Peasant Family University Student Mao Zedong The Long March Fought against Nationalist Chinese Violent Revolution Theory
After the end of World War II, the U.S. continued to support Chiang Kai-shek WHY? • Who supported China? How? • On December 10, 1949, Chiang Kai-shek’slost and evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan .
Establishment of Communist China • Mao’s first political goal was to take all land from land owners and get rid of all people who didn’t like communism. • What do you think happened to those people who refused? • Believed to have killed over 1 million people
Graphic Organizer Land Reform Mass Executions Mao Zedong
Great Leap Forward • Mao launched the Great Leap Forward. • People were either forced to work on large farms or work in the iron and steel industry. • What was he hoping to strengthen? • All private food production was banned; livestock and farm equipment was confiscated and made public property.
Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao ordered unproven new agricultural techniques by the new communes (large farms) . Causing what? Why? • Caused • death of tens of millions of Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962.
The commune provided all that was needed – including entertainment. Soldiers worked alongside people. The population in a commune was sub-divided. Twelve families formed a work team. Twelve work terms formed a brigade. Each sub-division was given specific work to do. Party members oversaw the work of a commune to ensure that decisions followed the correct party line.
1960 had even worse weather than 1959. The harvest of 1960 was 144 million tons. 9 million people are thought to have starved to death in 1960 alone; many millions were left desperately ill as a result of a lack of food. The government had to introduce rationing. This put people on the most minimal of food and between 1959 and 1962, it is thought that 20 million people died of starvation or diseases related to starvation.
By 1959, it was obvious that the Great Leap Forward had been a failure. Some party members put the blame of the failure of the Great Leap Forward on Mao. He was popular with the people but he still had to resign from his position as Head of State (though he remained in the powerful Party Chairman position).
Interactive Notebook Question (Left Side) • Think-Pair-Share • What do you think would be the drawbacks to living in a Commune?
Graphic Organizer Land Reform Mass Executions Mao Zedong Great Leap Forward Widespread Famine
Cultural Revolution • With the two unsuccessful changes in the economy and government…what should Mao be worried about? • Cultural Revolution closed schools in China and young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside and forced to manufacture weapons for the Red Army WHY? What was Mao fearful of?
Graphic Organizer Land Reform Mass Executions Mao Zedong Great Leap Forward Widespread Famine Cultural Revolution Mass Executions
Interactive Notebook Question Mao Zedong (Left Side) • Essay (1st-5thperiods) • Write a paragraph describing the leadership of Mao and his affect on China. • Explain why you think he was successful or not successful.
Summarizing Activity 1 • On the left side of your INB: • Place the following events in chronological order: • The Cultural Revolution • World War II • The Great Leap Forward • The Long March
Summarizing Activity 2 On the left side of your INB: Match the person with their government: Mao Zedong Chang Kai Shek Democracy Communist PRC ROC
Summarizing Activity 3 On the left side of your INB Pick ONE and draw your interpretation of the event: The Long March The Great Leap Forward The Cultural Revlution
Summarizing Activity 4 • On the left side of your INB: • Put the following people in Chronological order • Karl Marx Mao Zedong • Vladimir Lenin
Bibliography Chaing Kai Shek. EHistory.http://ehistory.osu.edu/index.cfm. December 3, 2007. A Consice History of China. http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/china/ch07.html#Top. December 3, 2007. World War 2 History. http://www.libraries.psu.edu/maps. December 3, 2007 Mao Zedong. http://www.lcsd.k12.wa.us/~kbounds/class.global/4.china/4.PuYi.to.Mao/bio.mao.htm. Janurary 20, 2008.