East Asia. China, Japan, North & South Korea. What is Asia?. Marco Polo. China. Northeast. NORTHWEST. SOUTHWEST. SOUTHEAST. China Basics--Geography. China covers 3.7 million square miles: 3 rd largest country in the world. Varied climate and landforms.
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China, Japan, North & South Korea
Compressing 3000 Years of History in 7 Slides!
The Zhou Dynasty lasted 900 years.
The Emperors ruled under The Mandate of Heaven.
During this time Daoism, Confucianism, an Legalism, were practiced.
This period of time was very violent and filled with wars.
Lasted only 15 years.
China is united under Shi Huang Di (First Emperor), he was very strict (Legalism).
Achievements: Created a Law Code, A Standard Measuring System, Standard writing, New Roads, The Great Wall of China
The Umbrella was invented.
After Shi Huang Di died the peasants revolted because they thought the government was too strict.
A peasant named Han came to power and became the Emperor.
Achievements: Increased trade with the West, accurate calendar, acupuncture, invented paper, made advanced rice.
The Tang and Song Dynasty were extended times of peace.
Achievements: Woodblock/moveable type printing, gunpowder, magnetic compass, catapult, fireworks.
Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes.
Kublai Khan (Grandson of Genghiz Khan) controlled all over China.
Marco Polo visited during this time.
Achievements: Gold/riches, further trade with the West.
Ming Hung Wu was a peasant and led China to kick the Mongol Emperor out, he became the new Emperor.
Limited contact with the West.
Achievements: Created the Forbidden City, Changed the capital to Beijing, built a better Navy.
The last dynasty of China.
Was ruled by a Manchurian and tried to replace Chinese culture.
Achievements: Kept Confusion beliefs, kept isolation policies.
The West’s (And Japan’s)Thirst For Power
From Revolution To Riches (For some, not all.)
In 1911, The Boxer Rebellion occurred when the people of China wanted all foreigners out. China lost but became a republic.
A Civil War broke out and two opposing leaders immerged, Mao Zedong (Communist) and Chiang Kai Shek.(Nationalist)
Japan soon invaded in 1937 and both Mao and Chiang called a truce.
After WWII in 1945 Mao (Communist) and Chiang (Nationalist) fought for control of China.
Mao won and China became a Communist country in 1949.
Chiang settled on the island of Taiwan, never to see China again.
The Great Leap Forward (1958) was a program made by Mao to “modernize”.
It ended in disaster because Mao took farmers from their land to work in the city causing a famine.
20 million people died in 3 years.
Mao died in 1976 and under Deng Xiaoping China began to modernize:
China embraced capitalism at the expense of the people, many would live in poverty for the rest of their lives.
Population: 1.2 Billion people.
1 child rule was made to lower population.
An average factory worker makes $1.36 hr.
China is heavily polluted, 96% of cities fail environmental standards.
China has the 2nd largest economy in the world.
China to this day has many issues with Civil Rights.
Korea—Tale of 2 countries
The Suppression of a People
Choson Dynasty faced off against a series of invasions—1st—the Japanese (successful) and 2nd—the Manchus (unsuccessful)
Korea closed off its ports to the outside world. This lasted for almost 200 years and was called Isolationism.
As China’s power declined in the late 1800s, so did Korea’s and with it, their ability to enforce isolationism.
Korea had its ports forced open by western countries.
Japan was the 1st country to take advantage of Korea’s weakened state. They began to compete with China and Russia for territory in Korea.
In 1905, Japan took control of Korea and in 1910, Japan annexed it and made it part of its territories.
After WWII Korea wanted independence.
In 1948, the Russians installed a Communist government in the North and the South became a Democracy.
The Korean War began in 1950.
In 1953 it ended in a draw and Korea was split in two at the 38th parallel.
What impact did the Korean War have on the country?
U.S. has taken care of South Korea since the war—economic and military support.
Although democratic, South Korea’s presidents have exercised harsh control over the country both socially and economically.
South Korea’s economy has steadily grown since the 1960s. In fact, their GDP per capita has nearly doubled since 2000.
A middle class has emerged and the country has become urbanized with most of the citizens living in cities and off the farms.
One of the world’s poorest countries.
Kim Il Sung, North Korea’s first dictator, believed that North Korea needed to be totally self-sufficient and isolated the country from the world, including other Communist countries.
His son, Kim Jong Il, continued this practice.
A famine in 1995 exposed the weakness of their plan. Millions died because the government was not equipped to handle the problem.
In 2008, country had little choice but to accept food aid from World Food Bank to feed its population.
North Korea has spent most of its resources on its military and its weapons programs. They have nuclear capabilities and have tested their nuclear weapon as a show of strength to the world.
Most Koreans hope to one day see a united Korea.
Problem is that nothing can happen while the current leadership is in control of North Korea.
North Korea recently broke the non-aggression pact that the countries has signed when they bombed a South Korean island in February. South Korea has cut off all diplomatic contact and cut financial aid to the North.
At this moment, the Korean peninsula is one of the world’s “hotspots” where a conflict/war could break out.
Compare North and South Korea today in terms of stability and economic output.
Japan—Land of the Rising Sun
-- Japan is an archipelago that lies about 1600 miles off the coast of East Asia.
-- Consists of 4 main islands and 3,000 tiny islands. Honshu is the largest and most populated.
-- Japan lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire—country feels as many as 1500 earthquakes a year.
--In size, Japan is about the size of Montana (small for a country) but has a large population (125 million/10th largest in the world)
--Population is packed onto 1/5 of the land because the other 4/5 is mountainous.
--As a result, Japan has population densities of 20,000 people per square mile in some places.
Rainfall is plentiful and the temperature range provides for a long growing season for their farms.
Rice is the major crop but Japan uses its limited farmland effectively—able to use only 8% of its land to feed 75% of its population.
Partly because farmland is limited, fish are the main source of protein in the Japanese diet and fishing is a major economic activity.
Japan is limited in terms of its mineral resources. When it was a farming and fishing country, they had enough; however, as the country industrialized, it needed to import most of its raw materials.
Has had a profound effect on the country—led to Japan’s aggression in the 1930s to takeover Pacific countries and today, they are dependant on the rest of the world for the oil, iron ore, and coal from the rest of the world.
How has Japan’s location and geography affected its population and culture?
How did Japan try to control the amount of ideas, goods, etc. that entered the country from the West?
Japan began by taking over the area north of Korea, the Manchurian region of China.
Proceeded to move south and east until the occupied territory in Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Vietnam) and into Indonesia.
They joined in WWII on the German/Italian side—Axis Powers.
Basically battled U.S. all over the Pacific; after defeat of the Nazis, the U.S. turned full attention towards Japan.
Instead of a full scale invasion, U.S. dropped 2 A-Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and surrendered.
The U.S. left in 1952; felt that we needed Japan as an free and independent ally in the Cold War.
How did Japan’s limited natural resources (coal, iron, oil) lead it to its involvement in WWII?
After WWII, Japan started to aggressively pursue trade with other nations.
The country sold over $4 billion worth of goods to UN forces during the Korean War.
Japan’s success came from 1: taking raw materials and make them into finished products and, 2: improving upon western technology (VCRs, cars, stereos)
Japan’s economic growth is often referred to as a miracle due to the rapid growth for basically 3 decades.
Japan was one of the world’s strongest from the 1950s to the late 80s.
Their economy was hit by a recession in 1989 and the 90s were known as the lost decade.
The economy recovered just in time for the recent economic downturn and Japan’s economy has fallen from 2nd largest to 4th and is in danger of falling further.
March 11, 2011—an earthquake that registered 8.9 on the Richter scale hit off the coast of Japan.
That triggered a tsunami with waves up to 33 feet high to sweep as far as 6 miles inland in the Northeastern part of Japan.
Over 9,000 confirmed dead and over 13,000 still missing.
The issues at 3 nuclear power plants has severely limited the ability of humanitarian organizations to get to the region.
Economists believe that it will take 5 years and 322 billion dollars to rebuild the region.
What are the major social and economic changes that Japan is currently facing?