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East Asia. China, Japan, North & South Korea. What is Asia?. Marco Polo. China. Northeast. NORTHWEST. SOUTHWEST. SOUTHEAST. China Basics--Geography. China covers 3.7 million square miles: 3 rd largest country in the world. Varied climate and landforms.

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east asia

East Asia

China, Japan, North & South Korea

china
China

Northeast

NORTHWEST

SOUTHWEST

SOUTHEAST

china basics geography
China Basics--Geography
  • China covers 3.7 million square miles:
    • 3rd largest country in the world.
  • Varied climate and landforms.
    • Deserts in the north, mountains in the west, rain forest in the south.
    • East is mostly flat and farmable. Area has largest concentration of people in the world.
  • Mountains and plateaus cover about 80% of the country.
china s regions
China’s Regions
  • The Northeast
    • Functions as China’s core: It’s capital , Beijing, has remained the capital for centuries.
    • Region contains China’s most fertile farmland.
  • Densely populated area—Contains 15 cities with at least a population of 2 million.
  • Population puts considerable strain on the resources of the area, particularly water.

The Southeast

  • It has more mountains that the NE and is much warmer.
  • Big agricultural area. Supported by the Yangtze River—densely populated area. Home of China’s major port city of Shanghai.
  • The SE’s population is increasing very fast.
china s regions1
China’s Regions
  • The Northwest
    • Has 2 large deserts, the Gobi and the TaklaMakan.
    • Much less populated than eastern half of country.
    • Rugged terrain—mountainous, dry—Gobi is one of driest places on earth.
    • Major ways of life is herding and farming.
  • The Southwest
  • Almost entire region is made up by Tibet.
    • Tibet used to be an independent country.
    • China invaded Tibet in the 1950s and took over.
    • Tibet is now an autonomous region—under Chinese government but has limited self-government.
china s ethnicity
China’s Ethnicity
  • 92% of China’s population belongs to the Han ethnic group.
  • The remaining 8% is divided up among 56 smaller groups; most of these groups live in western part of China.
  • No matter ethnic group you may be part of, you must be able to speak Mandarin, the official language of the country.
chinese history the dynasties

Chinese History: The Dynasties

Compressing 3000 Years of History in 7 Slides!

zhou dynasty 1045 256 bc
Zhou Dynasty: 1045 - 256 BC

The Zhou Dynasty lasted 900 years.

The Emperors ruled under The Mandate of Heaven.

During this time Daoism, Confucianism, an Legalism, were practiced.

This period of time was very violent and filled with wars.

qin dynasty 221 206 bc
Qin Dynasty: 221 - 206 BC

Lasted only 15 years.

China is united under Shi Huang Di (First Emperor), he was very strict (Legalism).

Achievements: Created a Law Code, A Standard Measuring System, Standard writing, New Roads, The Great Wall of China

The Umbrella was invented.

han dynasty 206 bc 220 ad
Han Dynasty: 206 BC - 220 AD

After Shi Huang Di died the peasants revolted because they thought the government was too strict.

A peasant named Han came to power and became the Emperor.

Achievements: Increased trade with the West, accurate calendar, acupuncture, invented paper, made advanced rice.

tang dynasty 618 907 ad and song dynasty 960 1279 ad
Tang Dynasty: 618 – 907 AD ANDSong Dynasty: 960 – 1279 AD

The Tang and Song Dynasty were extended times of peace.

Achievements: Woodblock/moveable type printing, gunpowder, magnetic compass, catapult, fireworks.

Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes.

yuan dynasty 1279 1368
Yuan Dynasty: 1279 - 1368

Kublai Khan (Grandson of Genghiz Khan) controlled all over China.

Marco Polo visited during this time.

Achievements: Gold/riches, further trade with the West.

ming dynasty 1368 1644
Ming Dynasty: 1368 - 1644

Ming Hung Wu was a peasant and led China to kick the Mongol Emperor out, he became the new Emperor.

Limited contact with the West.

Achievements: Created the Forbidden City, Changed the capital to Beijing, built a better Navy.

qing dynasty 1644 1912
Qing Dynasty: 1644 - 1912

The last dynasty of China.

Was ruled by a Manchurian and tried to replace Chinese culture.

Achievements: Kept Confusion beliefs, kept isolation policies.

ancient chinese history
Ancient Chinese History

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylWORyToTo4

chinese history imperialism

Chinese History: Imperialism

The West’s (And Japan’s)Thirst For Power

modern chinese history

Modern Chinese History

From Revolution To Riches (For some, not all.)

modern chinese history1
Modern Chinese History

In 1911, The Boxer Rebellion occurred when the people of China wanted all foreigners out. China lost but became a republic.

A Civil War broke out and two opposing leaders immerged, Mao Zedong (Communist) and Chiang Kai Shek.(Nationalist)

modern chinese history2
Modern Chinese History

Japan soon invaded in 1937 and both Mao and Chiang called a truce.

After WWII in 1945 Mao (Communist) and Chiang (Nationalist) fought for control of China.

Mao won and China became a Communist country in 1949.

Chiang settled on the island of Taiwan, never to see China again.

china under mao
China Under Mao
  • The Cultural Revolution (1966) was a program to “rally” China for Communism.
  • This was also a disaster. Mao formed the “Red Guard” to bully those who went against him.
  • Schools closed, millions were tortured and killed. China continued to be poor and weak.

The Great Leap Forward (1958) was a program made by Mao to “modernize”.

It ended in disaster because Mao took farmers from their land to work in the city causing a famine.

20 million people died in 3 years.

china after mao
China After Mao

Mao died in 1976 and under Deng Xiaoping China began to modernize:

Agriculture

Technology/Education

Industry

Military

China embraced capitalism at the expense of the people, many would live in poverty for the rest of their lives.

china today
China Today

Population: 1.2 Billion people.

1 child rule was made to lower population.

An average factory worker makes $1.36 hr.

China is heavily polluted, 96% of cities fail environmental standards.

China has the 2nd largest economy in the world.

China to this day has many issues with Civil Rights.

china s revolutions
China’s Revolutions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UUCEeC4f6ts

korea

Korea

Korea—Tale of 2 countries

geography
Geography
  • Korean Peninsula sits between China and Japan.
    • Divided into 2 nations—North Korea and South Korea.
    • South is slightly smaller but has 2x the population.
  • Mountains cover 70% of the peninsula. The North has more mountains than the South.
    • Most live along the coast—the west coast is a farming region.
    • There are capitals for both countries-Seoul in the South, Pyongyang in the North.
industry
Industry
  • Korean peninsula has 6,000 miles of coastline; fishing is a major economic activity.
    • South Korea has world’s 3rd largest fishing industry.
  • Peninsula’s climate is similar to ours with 4 distinct seasons; S. Korea is a major rice producer.
  • N. Korea has more mineral resources—coal, iron ore, copper—than the South.
korea s people
Korea’s People
  • Korea is considered to be a homogenous society—all people share a common ethnic and cultural background.
    • Despite being divided, Koreans on both sides consider themselves 1 people.
  • Korean is its own language and both people in the North and South speak it.
education in korea
Education in Korea
  • Korea is a very well-educated area—education is considered vital.
    • The literacy rate for the peninsula is 95% and the high school and college graduation rates are among the highest in the world—particularly the South.
korean history imperialism wwii

Korean History: Imperialism -WWII

The Suppression of a People

invasions isolation and imperialism
Invasions, Isolation, and Imperialism

Choson Dynasty faced off against a series of invasions—1st—the Japanese (successful) and 2nd—the Manchus (unsuccessful)

Korea closed off its ports to the outside world. This lasted for almost 200 years and was called Isolationism.

As China’s power declined in the late 1800s, so did Korea’s and with it, their ability to enforce isolationism.

invasions isolation and imperialism1
Invasions, Isolation, and Imperialism

Korea had its ports forced open by western countries.

Japan was the 1st country to take advantage of Korea’s weakened state. They began to compete with China and Russia for territory in Korea.

In 1905, Japan took control of Korea and in 1910, Japan annexed it and made it part of its territories.

japanese rule
Japanese Rule
  • The Japanese were harsh rulers.
    • Made Koreans take Japanese names
    • Forced Koreans to build factories, roads, and railroads.
    • Took 50% of crops to support Japanese expansion.
  • Koreans bitterly resented Japanese rule. In the 1920s, 30s, and 40s Koreans tried to rebel against Japanese rule.
  • Koreans were forced to fight for the Japanese in WWII.
korea and the cold war
Korea and the Cold War

After WWII Korea wanted independence.

In 1948, the Russians installed a Communist government in the North and the South became a Democracy.

The Korean War began in 1950.

In 1953 it ended in a draw and Korea was split in two at the 38th parallel.

essential question
Essential Question

What impact did the Korean War have on the country?

south korea today
South Korea Today

U.S. has taken care of South Korea since the war—economic and military support.

Although democratic, South Korea’s presidents have exercised harsh control over the country both socially and economically.

South Korea’s economy has steadily grown since the 1960s. In fact, their GDP per capita has nearly doubled since 2000.

A middle class has emerged and the country has become urbanized with most of the citizens living in cities and off the farms.

north korea today
North Korea Today

One of the world’s poorest countries.

Kim Il Sung, North Korea’s first dictator, believed that North Korea needed to be totally self-sufficient and isolated the country from the world, including other Communist countries.

His son, Kim Jong Il, continued this practice.

A famine in 1995 exposed the weakness of their plan. Millions died because the government was not equipped to handle the problem.

In 2008, country had little choice but to accept food aid from World Food Bank to feed its population.

North Korea has spent most of its resources on its military and its weapons programs. They have nuclear capabilities and have tested their nuclear weapon as a show of strength to the world.

outlook for the future
Outlook for the Future

Most Koreans hope to one day see a united Korea.

Problem is that nothing can happen while the current leadership is in control of North Korea.

North Korea recently broke the non-aggression pact that the countries has signed when they bombed a South Korean island in February. South Korea has cut off all diplomatic contact and cut financial aid to the North.

At this moment, the Korean peninsula is one of the world’s “hotspots” where a conflict/war could break out.

essential question1
Essential Question

Compare North and South Korea today in terms of stability and economic output.

east asia notes part 6

East Asia Notes, Part 6

Japan—Land of the Rising Sun

japan s geography
Japan’s Geography

-- Japan is an archipelago that lies about 1600 miles off the coast of East Asia.

-- Consists of 4 main islands and 3,000 tiny islands. Honshu is the largest and most populated.

-- Japan lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire—country feels as many as 1500 earthquakes a year.

--In size, Japan is about the size of Montana (small for a country) but has a large population (125 million/10th largest in the world)

--Population is packed onto 1/5 of the land because the other 4/5 is mountainous.

--As a result, Japan has population densities of 20,000 people per square mile in some places.

use of the land
Use of the Land

Rainfall is plentiful and the temperature range provides for a long growing season for their farms.

Rice is the major crop but Japan uses its limited farmland effectively—able to use only 8% of its land to feed 75% of its population.

Partly because farmland is limited, fish are the main source of protein in the Japanese diet and fishing is a major economic activity.

limited natural resources
Limited Natural Resources

Japan is limited in terms of its mineral resources. When it was a farming and fishing country, they had enough; however, as the country industrialized, it needed to import most of its raw materials.

Has had a profound effect on the country—led to Japan’s aggression in the 1930s to takeover Pacific countries and today, they are dependant on the rest of the world for the oil, iron ore, and coal from the rest of the world.

the people of japan
The People of Japan
  • Japan is a homogenous society—all of the people speak the same language and share the same culture.
  • Japan’s isolation from the rest of the world have given them a sense of specialism.
  • Japanese citizens make a distinction between themselves and foreigners and there is a level of distrust and prejudice towards the small amount of foreigners that live in the country.
essential question2
Essential Question

How has Japan’s location and geography affected its population and culture?

japan s early history
Japan’s Early History
  • Japan was united into a single country by about 400 A.D.
    • The Tenno clan led the move to unity and their family became Japan’s royal family; the emperor today traces their roots to the Tenno.
  • Due to its location, Japanese culture was able to pick and choose what it wanted to adapt from different cultures.
    • Japanese writing based on Chinese.
    • Buddhism and Daoism are big in Japan.
japan s early history cont
Japan’s Early History cont.
  • The emperor from an early time were more figureheads than actual rulers; the most powerful clans were the government leaders.
  • From 1100s to the 1500s, Japan was in a constant state of battles—rival clans would battle to take power.
  • A powerful general Toyotomi Hideyoshi began to bring stability to the country.
japan s first contact with the west
Japan’s first contact with the West.
  • Japan fought to maintain its isolation; the first Europeans arrived in 1543 and trade began.
    • Europeans also brought Christianity, a fact that upset those in power greatly.
  • They did not want Japanese people to pledge loyalty to a foreign ruler (the pope).
    • In 1639, the Japanese government began a program of kicking out all foreigners. It was so strict that even if you were Japanese and left the island, you weren’t allowed back.
japan and contact with the west
Japan and Contact with the West
  • This changed in 1853 when Commodore Perry, a U.S. representative, negotiated a trade agreement with Japan. A fleet of naval warships backed him.
  • The trade agreement was unfair; the Japanese were not happy.
  • In 1868, a new ruler named Meiji (became the first emperor in centuries to be the head of the government) came to power; he wanted to practice SELECTIVE BORROWING. Japan would study Western ideas and technology to become more modern, pick out the ideas they like, and apply them to Japan.
    • Example—Japan wrote a democratic constitution in 1889. Also sought help with railroads, steam engines, and factories.
  • It worked as Japan rapidly became more modern by the early 1900’s.
essential question3
Essential Question

How did Japan try to control the amount of ideas, goods, etc. that entered the country from the West?

japanese expansion
Japanese Expansion
  • By 1900, Japan had transformed itself into a modern, industrialized country including a modern military.
    • They set out to gain an overseas empire similar to western powers.
  • 1904-05—Japan and Russia fought a war over control for Korea. Japan defeated Russia. Shocked the world as it was the first time that an Asian nation had defeated a European power.
    • Huge benefit to Japan as they could harvest the raw materials that they lacked on the island.
japan and wwii
Japan and WWII
  • Japan’s economy did nothing but grow from the early 1900s until 1929 but the Great Depression had a huge impact on the country since Japan was so dependant on trade.
  • As factories closed and unemployment rose, a group of military leaders were able to assume power and Japan became a military dictatorship.
  • They felt that in order to survive, Japan needed to expel all western countries from Asia and become the dominant power.
  • Japan began a policy of expansion into Asia. They needed the raw materials from other countries to keep their economy going.
wwii cont
WWII cont.

Japan began by taking over the area north of Korea, the Manchurian region of China.

Proceeded to move south and east until the occupied territory in Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Vietnam) and into Indonesia.

They joined in WWII on the German/Italian side—Axis Powers.

Basically battled U.S. all over the Pacific; after defeat of the Nazis, the U.S. turned full attention towards Japan.

Instead of a full scale invasion, U.S. dropped 2 A-Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and surrendered.

american occupation
American Occupation
  • Japan was occupied by U.S. forces from 1945 to 1952.
  • U.S. reformed the country:
    • 1. Disbanded the military
    • 2. Stripped the emperor of power.
    • 3. Re-wrote the constitution and made Japan a democracy.
    • 4. Included an article that made it illegal for Japan to declare war.

The U.S. left in 1952; felt that we needed Japan as an free and independent ally in the Cold War.

essential question4
Essential Question

How did Japan’s limited natural resources (coal, iron, oil) lead it to its involvement in WWII?

post world war 2 japan
Post World War 2 Japan
  • The economy did not take off until Japan began to develop their electronics and automobile industry.
  • As Japan developed a reputation for quality products, their economic growth exploded. Japan remains a world leader.
  • Japan carries a trade imbalance—they export far more than they import—which causes issues with other countries who claim Japan has unfair rules for foreign competitors.

After WWII, Japan started to aggressively pursue trade with other nations.

The country sold over $4 billion worth of goods to UN forces during the Korean War.

Japan’s success came from 1: taking raw materials and make them into finished products and, 2: improving upon western technology (VCRs, cars, stereos)

Japan’s economic growth is often referred to as a miracle due to the rapid growth for basically 3 decades.

japan today
Japan Today

Japan was one of the world’s strongest from the 1950s to the late 80s.

Their economy was hit by a recession in 1989 and the 90s were known as the lost decade.

The economy recovered just in time for the recent economic downturn and Japan’s economy has fallen from 2nd largest to 4th and is in danger of falling further.

japan today cont
Japan Today cont.
  • Japan is actually shrinking in terms of population—has had a negative growth rate for the past 5 years.
  • Also, is one of the oldest countries in the world with 22% of its people over 65.
    • This puts tremendous strain on an economy as the current workforce has to be productive enough to pay for the retired.
  • Japan’s economy while strong has a lot of issues facing it in the future.
earthquake and tsunami
Earthquake and Tsunami

March 11, 2011—an earthquake that registered 8.9 on the Richter scale hit off the coast of Japan.

That triggered a tsunami with waves up to 33 feet high to sweep as far as 6 miles inland in the Northeastern part of Japan.

Over 9,000 confirmed dead and over 13,000 still missing.

The issues at 3 nuclear power plants has severely limited the ability of humanitarian organizations to get to the region.

Economists believe that it will take 5 years and 322 billion dollars to rebuild the region.

essential question5
Essential Question

What are the major social and economic changes that Japan is currently facing?