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SP105 Listening. Welcome to the Class!. What is Communication?. What is communication?. Sender Message Receiver. What is communication?. Sender Message Receiver Shannon and Weaver’s “Linear Model of Communication”. What is communication?.

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Sp105 listening

SP105Listening

Welcome to the Class!



What is communication1
What is communication?

  • Sender Message Receiver


What is communication2
What is communication?

  • Sender Message Receiver

    Shannon and Weaver’s

  • “Linear Model of Communication”


What is communication3
What is communication?

(Encode) (Decode)

Sender Message Receiver

Verbal / Nonverbal


What is communication4
What is communication?

(Encode) (Decode)

Sender Message Receiver

Verbal / Nonverbal

ChannelChannel


What is communication5
What is communication?

(Encode) (Decode)

Sender Message Receiver

Verbal / Nonverbal

ChannelChannel

Feedback


What is communication6
What is communication?

(Encode) (Decode)

Sender Message Receiver

Verbal / Nonverbal

Channel Channel

Noise

Feedback


Berlo s interactive model of communication
Berlo’s Interactive Model of Communication

(Encode) (Decode)

Sender Message Receiver

Verbal / Nonverbal

Channel Channel

Noise

Feedback


Barlund s transactional model of communication
Barlund’s Transactional Model of Communication

(Encode) (Decode)

Sender Message Receiver

ReceiverVerbal / Nonverbal Sender

ChannelChannel

Noise

Feedback


Message two sides
Message – two sides

Verbal Communication

&

Nonverbal Communication


Verbal communication
Verbal Communication:

  • What is verbal communication?


Verbal communication1
Verbal Communication:

  • What is verbal communication?

  • Spoken word


Verbal communication2
Verbal Communication:

  • What is verbal communication?

    Spoken word

    Content

    Written word


Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication:

  • What is nonverbal communication?


Nonverbal communication1
Nonverbal Communication:

  • What is nonverbal communication?

  • Gestures

  • Facial Expressions

  • Paralanguage

  • Body Movement / Space

  • Touch

  • Clothing

  • Hair

  • Jewelry

  • and much more!


Benefits of communicating
Benefits of Communicating:

  • It is said that we learn:

  • 10% of what we read

  • 20 % of what we hear

  • 30% of what we see

  • 70% of what we speak


Harvard business review 2005 states
Harvard Business Review 2005 states:

  • A recent survey of 428 personnel managers indicated that oral communication skills were the most important factors for obtaining employment and promotions.


Us dept of education 2005 reported that
US Dept. of Education 2005 reported that:

  • Language and thought are interconnected and as undergraduate students develop their linguistic skills, students hone the quality of their thinking and become intellectually and socially empowered.


Lee iacocca chairman of the chrysler corporation once said
Lee Iacocca, Chairman of the Chrysler Corporation once said:

  • “The most important thing I learned in college was how to communicate. You can have brilliant ideas but if you can’t get them across, your brains won’t get you anywhere.”


Ralph waldo emerson said
Ralph Waldo Emerson said:

  • “All great communicators were once bad communicators.


Fear of communication
Fear of Communication:

  • People tend to stress out in 3 different ways in various communication events:

  • 1. Physiological

  • 2. Emotional

  • 3. Psychological


Physical stress
Physical Stress:

  • Sleepless nights

  • Upset stomach

  • Dizziness

  • Tingling sensations in hands and/or legs


Physical stress1
Physical Stress:

  • Trembling knees

  • Sweaty palms

  • Light headedness

  • Dry mouth

  • Too much saliva

  • Nervous cough or laugh

  • Shaky or strained voice


Emotional stress
Emotional Stress:

  • Feelings of overwhelmed fear

  • Loss of control

  • Depression

  • Panic

  • Anxiety

  • Helplessness

  • Anger

  • Inadequacy

  • And more


Psychological stress
Psychological Stress:

  • Loss of memory

  • Negative thoughts or self-talk

  • Jumbled thought patterns

  • Nervous repetition of words or phrases – ah, umm, you know?

  • Awkward pauses


You re not alone
You’re not alone!

  • Many people feel the fear and stress of communication. No one is immune to the physiological, psychological and emotional changes that come with interacting with others


Other people who feel this way are
Other people who feel this way are:

  • Ronald Regan

  • Barbara Streisand

  • Tom Cruise

  • Oprah Winfrey

  • George W. Bush

  • Jewel


10 coping strategies
10 Coping Strategies:

  • 1. Know how you react to stress.

  • 2. Know your strengths and weaknesses.

  • 3. Know basic principles of

    communication.

  • 4. Know that it always looks and feels worse from the inside.

  • 5. Know what you want to say.

  • 6. Believe in yourself.


10 coping strategies1
10 Coping Strategies:

  • 7. View communication positively.

  • 8. Visualize being successful.

  • 9. Celebrate differences

  • 10. Learn from experience.


The importance of listening
The Importance of Listening

  • How do you determine what to listen to?


The importance of listening1
The Importance of Listening

  • How do you determine what to listen to?

  • Listening is driven by motives or needs - what are your motives or needs?


The importance of listening2
The Importance of Listening

  • How do you determine what to listen to?

  • Listening is driven by motives or needs what are your motives or needs?

  • Our motives and/or needs cause us to filter what we listen to and what we don’t listen to in various communication contexts.


Sp105 listening


Sp105 listening


Sp105 listening


The process of listening involves listening with our
The process of listening involves listening with our: takes time and concentration.

  • Ears

  • Eyes Physiological

  • Body

  • Mind – Psychological

  • Hearts – Emotion, empathetic

  • Environment – Social

  • Soul - Spiritual


Hurier model
HURIER Model takes time and concentration.

  • There are six-components to the HURIER listening model which serves as a framework for building listening skills.


Hurier model1
HURIER Model takes time and concentration.

  • The letters in HURIER represents six interrelated listening processes:

  • Hearing – Ch.3

  • Understanding – Ch.4

  • Remembering – Ch. 5

  • Interpreting – Ch. 6

  • Evaluating – Ch. 7

  • Responding – Ch.8


How were you taught to listen
How were you taught to listen? takes time and concentration.


Learned used taught
Learned Used Taught takes time and concentration.

Listening: 1st 45 % LeastSpeaking: 2nd 30% Next Least

Reading: 3rd 16% Next Most

Writing: 4th 9% Most


Receiving the message
Receiving the Message takes time and concentration.

  • Receiving the message is a vital component in the process of communication.

  • Listening is the skill that enables us to receive messages.


The message
The Message takes time and concentration.

  • Denotative message – dictionary meaning.

  • Connotative message – emotional meaning.

  • Relational message - relationship


Listening
Listening takes time and concentration.

  • What is listening?

  • How do we listen?

  • How can you tell someone is listening?

  • How can you tell when someone is not listening?

  • Take out a sheet of paper, please.


Listening good
Listening - Good takes time and concentration.

  • 1. Describe the person who is a good listener.

  • 2. Describe how you knew they were listening.

  • 3. How do they make you feel when they listen to you?

  • 4. How do you feel toward them?


Listening poor
Listening - Poor takes time and concentration.

  • 1. Describe the person who is a poor listener.

  • 2. Describe how you knew they were not listening.

  • 3. How do they make you feel when they don’t listen to you?

  • 4. How do you feel toward them?


Listening and communicating
Listening and Communicating takes time and concentration.

  • We learn to listen before we are able to speak.

  • The average person spends:

    • 9% of their time reading

      (taught first, learned last)

    • 16% of their time writing

      (taught 2nd, learned next to last)

    • 30% of their time speaking

      (taught 3rd, learned next most)

    • 45% of their time listening

      (taught last, learned first)


Listening is a skill and a process that includes 5 steps
Listening is a skill and a process that includes 5 steps: takes time and concentration.

  • 1. Hearing is the physiological aspect of listening.

    • Noise – White/Masked

  • 2. Attending is the psychological process of listening.

    • Filtering process.

    • Motivation, incentive and act.


Steps to listening
Steps to listening: takes time and concentration.

  • 3. Understanding is composed of several elements:

    • Rules of language.

    • Knowledge of the source.

    • Context of the message.

    • Understanding depends on the listeners mental ability (intelligence).


Steps to listening1
Steps to listening: takes time and concentration.

  • 4. Remembering is the ability to recall information once we have understood it.

  • Factors that help us to remember are:

    • Number of times we have heard it.

    • Amount of information to store.

    • Ability to rehearse or not.

    • We remember 25% of what we understand.


Steps to listening2
Steps to listening: takes time and concentration.

  • 5. Responding is the final element in the process. There are three ways to respond:

  • Passive – paying attention and nonverbally responding w/o offering any verbal feedback.


Steps to listening3
Steps to listening: takes time and concentration.

  • Active – paying attention and encouraging expanded information and clarity from the sender by asking questions, paraphrasing and having empathy.

  • Directive – telling others what to do regardless of how it may or may not effect or impact them.


Poor listening habits
Poor listening habits: takes time and concentration.

  • 1. Pseudolistening – faking listening.

  • 2. Stage Hogging – interrupting others to hear one’s own voice.

  • 3. Selective listening – responding to only a part of the message.

  • 4. Filling in the gaps – listening long enough to think you know what the message is.

  • 5. Insulated listening – avoiding certain topics.

  • 6. Defensive listening – taking innocent comments as personal attacks.

  • 7. Ambushing – storing issues from previous discussions and using them at a later time.


Reasons to listen
Reasons to listen: takes time and concentration.

  • Work

  • Relationships

  • Overall well-being


Hurier model2
HURIER Model takes time and concentration.

  • The letters in HURIER represents six interrelated listening processes:

  • Hearing

  • Understanding

  • Remembering

  • Interpreting

  • Evaluating

  • Responding


Personal listening filters
Personal listening filters takes time and concentration.

  • The HURIER model recognizes that people are constantly influenced by both internal and external factors that impact perception and interpretations.

  • External – environment, seating, temperature of the room, etc.

  • Internal – beliefs, values, attitudes, behaviors, etc.


Understanding yourself as a listener
Understanding yourself as a listener: takes time and concentration.

  • Self-concepts – a relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself that answers the questions – Who am I?

  • Self-Esteem – how you feel about yourself.

  • Self-Image – how you see yourself


Understanding yourself as a listener1
Understanding yourself as a listener: takes time and concentration.

  • Self-monitoring – your awareness of how your behavior affects another person within the context of a specific interaction and the degree to which you choose to modify your response based on that knowledge.


High self monitors
High Self-Monitors takes time and concentration.

  • High Self-monitor are concerned with the appropriateness of their responses, may vary their communication behaviors significantly from one experience to another.

  • When uncertain about the appropriate response, the high self-monitor will look to the behaviors of others for guidance.

  • For example: if a high self-monitor went to the movies with friends she/he would be likely to laugh when their friends laugh, even though they may not find the movie funny.


Low self monitors
Low Self-Monitors takes time and concentration.

  • Low self-monitors rely more on their own values and feelings as guides in managing their behavior.

  • Low self-monitors communication is relatively consistent from one person to the next or one situation to the next.


Perceptual differences
Perceptual Differences: takes time and concentration.

  • From the other person’s point of view – What do they see? Feel? Hear?

  • Each of us has a unique framework for viewing the world, a special set of crayons to color our visions.


Perceptions includes
Perceptions includes: takes time and concentration.

  • Selection

  • Organization

  • Interpretation


Barriers to effective listening
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • Rank Barrier

  • 1. Listening primarily for details.

  • 2. Distracted by external noise.

  • 3. Daydreaming.

  • 4. Thinking of another topic as

    a result of something the

    speaker said.

  • 5. Lack of interest in subject.


Barriers to effective listening1
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • Rank Barrier

  • 6. Concentrating on speaker's

    delivery or mannerisms,

    rather than message.

  • 7. Becoming impatient with the

    speaker.

  • 8. Disagreeing or arguing,

    inwardly or outwardly, with

    the speaker.

  • 9. Trying to outline everything mentally

  • 10. Faking attention


New barriers to effective listening
NEW BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

10. Rehearsing

  • Your whole attention is on designing and preparing your next comment.

  • You look interested, but your mind is going a mile a minute because you are thinking about what to say next.

  • Some people rehearse whole chains of responses: I'll say, then he'll say, and so on.


Barriers to effective listening2
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 11. Judging

  • Negatively labeling people can be extremely limiting.

  • For example, if you prejudge somebody as incompetent or uninformed, you don't pay much attention to what that person says.

  • A basic rule of listening is that judgments should only be made after you have heard and evaluated the content of the message.


Barriers to effective listening3
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 12. Identifying

  • When using this block, you take everything people tell you and refer it back to your own experience.

  • For example, they want to tell you about a toothache, but that reminds you of your oral surgery for receding gums. You launch into your story before they can finish theirs.


Barriers to effective listening4
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 13. Sparring

  • This block has you arguing and debating with people who never feel heard because you are so quick to disagree. In fact, your main focus is on finding things to disagree with.


Barriers to effective listening5
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 14. Being Right

  • Being right means you will go to great lengths (twist the facts, start shouting, make excuses or accusations, call up past sins) to avoid being wrong.

  • You can't listen to criticism, you can't be corrected, and you can't take suggestions to change.


Barriers to effective listening6
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 15. Placating

  • Right . . . Absolutely . . . I know . . . Of course you are . . . Incredible . . . Really? You want to be nice, pleasant, supportive. You want people to like you. So you agree with everything.

  • You may half-listen just enough to get the drift, but you are not really involved.


Barriers to effective listening7
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 16. Self Focus

  • This barrier is the internal commentary and thoughts that occupy our attention.

  • Things like “I wonder how long I am going to have to listen to this lecture”, or “I wonder what I should have for dinner tonight” are examples of self focus.

  • To solve this problem: Become aware of the fact you are doing it.

  • As you become aware of the fact that you are drifting, concentrate on the speaker’s message.

  • Become actively involved in the communication process (provide feedback, listen, take notes, etc).


Guidelines for better listening
GUIDELINES FOR BETTER LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 1. Desire to listen.

  • 2. Focus on the message.

  • 3. Listen for main ideas.

  • 4. Understand the speaker's point

    of view.

  • 5. Withhold judgment.


Guidelines for better listening1
GUIDELINES FOR BETTER LISTENING: takes time and concentration.

  • 6. Reinforce the message with

    repetition, paraphrase, and

    summary.

  • 7. Provide feedback.

  • 8. Listen with the body.

  • 9. Listen critically, not

    judgmentally.


Student awareness levels during lectures
STUDENT AWARENESS LEVELS DURING LECTURES: takes time and concentration.

  • 12% actively listening


Student awareness levels during lectures1
STUDENT AWARENESS LEVELS DURING LECTURES: takes time and concentration.

  • 12% actively listening

  • 20% paying attention


Student awareness levels during lectures2
STUDENT AWARENESS LEVELS DURING LECTURES: takes time and concentration.

  • 12% actively listening

  • 20% paying attention

  • 20 % daydreaming, worrying, thinking about food


Student awareness levels during lectures3
STUDENT AWARENESS LEVELS DURING LECTURES: takes time and concentration.

  • 12% actively listening

  • 20% paying attention

  • 20 % daydreaming, worrying, thinking about food

  • 20% reminiscing


Student awareness levels during lectures4
STUDENT AWARENESS LEVELS DURING LECTURES: takes time and concentration.

  • 12% actively listening

  • 20% paying attention

  • 20 % daydreaming, worrying, thinking about food

  • 20% reminiscing

  • 8% religion


Student awareness levels during lectures5
STUDENT AWARENESS LEVELS DURING LECTURES: takes time and concentration.

  • 12% actively listening

  • 20% paying attention

  • 20 % daydreaming, worrying, thinking about food

  • 20% reminiscing

  • 8% religion

  • 20% erotic thoughts