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Politics of Slavery

Politics of Slavery

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Politics of Slavery

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  1. Politics of Slavery Chapter 10 Section 1 Objective 3.01

  2. Objective 3.01 • Trace the economic, social, and political events from the Mexican War to the outbreak of the Civil War.

  3. North and South Develop differently

  4. North • Immigrants oppose slavery • Feared competition between free labor and slave labor • Threatened to reduce status of white workers who could not compete with slaves

  5. South • Fewer immigrants • Slaves were the majority in SC, LA, and MS

  6. Slavery in the Territories • Wilmot Proviso – would have closed Mexican Cession lands to slavery forever • Passed in House, Defeated in Senate – why? • Southerners saw slaves as property – Constitutional right

  7. A. Popular Sovereignty Panacea • Allow people in individual territories to make decisions about slavery • Didn’t advocate all-out ban as free-soilers did • In line with democratic traditions • *Not good enough for abolitionists- slavery could spread

  8. Prigg v. Pennsylvania 1842 – MD/PA court overturned conviction of slave catcher Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 upheld What else was decided?

  9. B. Political Triumph for General Taylor • Election of 1848 • Whigs- General Zachary Taylor • Democrats- Lewis Cass • Free-Soil Party • Against slavery b/c of competition w/ white jobs • Taylor won- war hero who took no stance on slavery

  10. C. Californy Gold 1848- Gold discovered in CA Huge population increase Lawlessness 1849- asked for statehood- free state

  11. California • Southerners assumed it would be a slave state. Why? • California applies for admission as a free state. Sets off debate.

  12. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1849) “If a man is going to California, he announces it with some hesitation; because it is a confession that he has failed at home.”

  13. Sectionalism • Many issues relating to sectionalism faced the 31st Congress (1849) • California • Texas/NM • Slavery in DC • Fugitive Slave Act • Secession?

  14. Henry Clay • The Great Compromiser worked to pass a compromise in the Senate • The Compromise of 1850

  15. Compromise of 1850 • California admitted as a free state • Utah and New Mexico decide territories decide about slavery – popular sovereignty – right of the people to decide • Texas-NM boundary dispute settled; Texas paid $10 million • Sale of slaves banned in D.C. Slavery may continue there • Stronger Fugitive Slave Act

  16. Daniel Webster assists • Webster helped Clay’s appeal for nat’l unity • 7th of March Speech • Angered home state (MA) • Support of Fugitive Slave Act?

  17. Senate rejects Compromise • Clay leaves Washington • Stephen Douglas of Illinois pushes Compromise through • He broke it up and passed the resolutions one by one

  18. Millard Fillmore • Gen. Zachary Taylor dies (President) • Millard Fillmore becomes President and supports the Compromise

  19. Fugitive Slave Act • Many surprised by harsh terms • Fugitives not entitled to a jury • Fed. commissioners received $10 for returning a runaway and $5 for freeing him or her

  20. Personal Liberty Laws • Passed by Northern states – forbade imprisonment of runaway slaves and guaranteed jury trials • Enraged Southerners

  21. Underground Railroad • Secret network that helped slaves escape • Most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman

  22. Harriet Tubman • Most famous conductor of Underground Railroad • Suffered brain damage (hit by overseer) as a young slave • Eventually ran away • Made 19 trips back to the South to help 300 slaves escape

  23. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Published 1852 • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe • Fictional novel about life under slavery • Inflamed passions

  24. Uncle Tom’s Cabin (continued) • Northern abolitionists increased protests • Southerners became determined to defend slavery

  25. Slavery kept tightly controlled in South • Slave codes – pre-Civil War laws in South – regulated would a slave could and couldn’t do • Ex. – illegal to teach a slave to read

  26. Nebraska and Kansas • Douglas pushes to organize territory west of Iowa and Missouri in 1854 • 2 reasons: • Chicago – San Francisco RR • Believed people wanted western lands incorporated into the Union

  27. Popular Sovereignty • Douglas pushes for popular sovereignty in Nebraska and Kansas territories • People decide (about slavery) • This territory was north of the 36’30 line from the Missouri Compromise

  28. Prairie slavery?

  29. Kansas – Nebraska Act • Jan. 1854 – Douglas introduces bill into Congress • Divides territory into Nebraska (north) and Kansas (south) • Established popular sovereignty in both territories (repealed Missouri Compromise) • Bill strongly supported by Southerners • Passes with the help of…

  30. Franklin Pierce • Democrat • Elected President in 1852

  31. Violence Erupts • Pro-slavery and Anti-slavery settlers rush to settle Kansas and set up their own governments

  32. B. The North-South Contest for Kansas • Battle for the state • Abolitionists, free-soilers • New England Emigrant Aid Company • Beecher’s Bibles • Southerners- not a good idea to bring slaves • 2 in KS, 15 in NB

  33. “Border Ruffians” • Pro-slavery advocates from Missouri illegally voted in a Pro-slavery gov’t • Lecompton Constitution • Abolitionists organized a rival gov’t in Topeka in 1855

  34. “Sack of Lawrence” • Antislavery settlers founded Lawrence, KS • 1856 - Posse of 800 armed men burned down the town

  35. “Pottawatomie Massacre” • Ardent abolitionist John Brown heard (mistakenly) that 5 men had been killed at Lawrence • He and his followers killed 5 men in pro-slavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek

  36. “Bleeding Kansas” • “waving the bloody shirt”

  37. Violence in the Senate • Preston Brooks (SC) canes Charles Sumner (Mass) • May 22, 1856