Politics of Slavery Chapter 10 Section 1 Objective 3.01
Objective 3.01 • Trace the economic, social, and political events from the Mexican War to the outbreak of the Civil War.
North • Immigrants oppose slavery • Feared competition between free labor and slave labor • Threatened to reduce status of white workers who could not compete with slaves
South • Fewer immigrants • Slaves were the majority in SC, LA, and MS
Slavery in the Territories • Wilmot Proviso – would have closed Mexican Cession lands to slavery forever • Passed in House, Defeated in Senate – why? • Southerners saw slaves as property – Constitutional right
A. Popular Sovereignty Panacea • Allow people in individual territories to make decisions about slavery • Didn’t advocate all-out ban as free-soilers did • In line with democratic traditions • *Not good enough for abolitionists- slavery could spread
Prigg v. Pennsylvania 1842 – MD/PA court overturned conviction of slave catcher Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 upheld What else was decided?
B. Political Triumph for General Taylor • Election of 1848 • Whigs- General Zachary Taylor • Democrats- Lewis Cass • Free-Soil Party • Against slavery b/c of competition w/ white jobs • Taylor won- war hero who took no stance on slavery
C. Californy Gold 1848- Gold discovered in CA Huge population increase Lawlessness 1849- asked for statehood- free state
California • Southerners assumed it would be a slave state. Why? • California applies for admission as a free state. Sets off debate.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1849) “If a man is going to California, he announces it with some hesitation; because it is a confession that he has failed at home.”
Sectionalism • Many issues relating to sectionalism faced the 31st Congress (1849) • California • Texas/NM • Slavery in DC • Fugitive Slave Act • Secession?
Henry Clay • The Great Compromiser worked to pass a compromise in the Senate • The Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 • California admitted as a free state • Utah and New Mexico decide territories decide about slavery – popular sovereignty – right of the people to decide • Texas-NM boundary dispute settled; Texas paid $10 million • Sale of slaves banned in D.C. Slavery may continue there • Stronger Fugitive Slave Act
Daniel Webster assists • Webster helped Clay’s appeal for nat’l unity • 7th of March Speech • Angered home state (MA) • Support of Fugitive Slave Act?
Senate rejects Compromise • Clay leaves Washington • Stephen Douglas of Illinois pushes Compromise through • He broke it up and passed the resolutions one by one
Millard Fillmore • Gen. Zachary Taylor dies (President) • Millard Fillmore becomes President and supports the Compromise
Fugitive Slave Act • Many surprised by harsh terms • Fugitives not entitled to a jury • Fed. commissioners received $10 for returning a runaway and $5 for freeing him or her
Personal Liberty Laws • Passed by Northern states – forbade imprisonment of runaway slaves and guaranteed jury trials • Enraged Southerners
Underground Railroad • Secret network that helped slaves escape • Most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman • Most famous conductor of Underground Railroad • Suffered brain damage (hit by overseer) as a young slave • Eventually ran away • Made 19 trips back to the South to help 300 slaves escape
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Published 1852 • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe • Fictional novel about life under slavery • Inflamed passions
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (continued) • Northern abolitionists increased protests • Southerners became determined to defend slavery
Slavery kept tightly controlled in South • Slave codes – pre-Civil War laws in South – regulated would a slave could and couldn’t do • Ex. – illegal to teach a slave to read
Nebraska and Kansas • Douglas pushes to organize territory west of Iowa and Missouri in 1854 • 2 reasons: • Chicago – San Francisco RR • Believed people wanted western lands incorporated into the Union
Popular Sovereignty • Douglas pushes for popular sovereignty in Nebraska and Kansas territories • People decide (about slavery) • This territory was north of the 36’30 line from the Missouri Compromise
Kansas – Nebraska Act • Jan. 1854 – Douglas introduces bill into Congress • Divides territory into Nebraska (north) and Kansas (south) • Established popular sovereignty in both territories (repealed Missouri Compromise) • Bill strongly supported by Southerners • Passes with the help of…
Franklin Pierce • Democrat • Elected President in 1852
Violence Erupts • Pro-slavery and Anti-slavery settlers rush to settle Kansas and set up their own governments
B. The North-South Contest for Kansas • Battle for the state • Abolitionists, free-soilers • New England Emigrant Aid Company • Beecher’s Bibles • Southerners- not a good idea to bring slaves • 2 in KS, 15 in NB
“Border Ruffians” • Pro-slavery advocates from Missouri illegally voted in a Pro-slavery gov’t • Lecompton Constitution • Abolitionists organized a rival gov’t in Topeka in 1855
“Sack of Lawrence” • Antislavery settlers founded Lawrence, KS • 1856 - Posse of 800 armed men burned down the town
“Pottawatomie Massacre” • Ardent abolitionist John Brown heard (mistakenly) that 5 men had been killed at Lawrence • He and his followers killed 5 men in pro-slavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek
“Bleeding Kansas” • “waving the bloody shirt”
Violence in the Senate • Preston Brooks (SC) canes Charles Sumner (Mass) • May 22, 1856