THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY By: Natalie and Meagan
SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES: • August 8, 1846 – David Wilmot • Amendment to a military appropriations bill proposing “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in any territory the U.S. may acquire as a result of war with Mexico • Wilmot Proviso: meant California, as well as territories of Utah and New Mexico, would be closed to slavery forever
THE WILMOT PROVISO: • Divided Congress along regional lines • North: mad at South for not supporting internal improvements; they supported the Proviso • Feared adding a slave territory would give slave states more members in Congress and deny opportunities to free laborers • South: rejected – said there were complex Const. issues • Slaves were property, which was protected by the Const. • Felt it would shift power to North permanently • The House of Representatives approved however the Senate did not
ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS PREDICTION The North will be for Wilmot Proviso, the South will be against it, and it will eventually lead to a war.
STATEHOOD FOR CALIFORNIA: • Able to skip the territorial phase of becoming a state • 1849 -- Const. convention, adopted state Const., elected governor and legislature, applied to join the Union • Forbade slavery, however southerners were still hoping the MO Compromise line would apply • South saw no slavery as an attack • Questioned if they should stay in Union?
THE SENATE DEBATES: • December 1849 – 31st Congress opened • Top of agenda: California as a state? • Second: border dispute in which slave state Texas, claimed the eastern half of New Mexico Territory where the issue of slavery wasn’t yet decided • North was demanding abolition of slavery in D.C. • South accused North of not following the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 • South threatened secession
CLAY’S COMPROMISE: • January 21, 1850 – Clay visited rival Daniel Webster • Made a series of resolutions later called Compromise of 1850 • Hoped to settle slave controversy Clay felt the only choice was to accept the Compromise and if it wasn’t the only choice left was disunion which would surely lead to war.
TERMS OF THE COMPROMISE: • To appease the North and South: • California added as a free state (North) • New and more effective fugitive slave law (South) • Some applied to all people: • Popular sovereignty: right of residence in an area to vote for or against slavery • Pay Texas $10 million to surrender land in New Mexico
CALHOUN AND WEBSTER RESPOND: • Clay’s speech marked start of great political debate • Clay presented South’s case for slavery in 1 month • Daniel Webster spoke next • urged North to stricter fugitive slave law • South to think more cautiously about danger of secession
WEBSTER’S RESPONSE TO THE COMPROMISE Daniel Webster wasn’t afraid to voice his opinion on the idea of the south’s idea of secession. He felt that secession would only lead to war.
THE COMPROMISE IS ADOPTED: • Senate rejected compromise in July • Discouraged Clay left Washington and Stephen A. Douglas continued the work • compromise into individual laws so Congress could vote on each • Taylor died leaving Millard Fillmore as president • Supported the compromise • South was willing to negotiate (best choice available) • Viewed as “first settlement” between slavery and sectional differences
WORKS CITED: • Kash. “The Missouri Compromise of 1850.” Mr. Kash’s History Page. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://mrkash.com/activities/compromise.html>. • U.S. Coin Values. “The 1850s: Coin Availability Improves as Nation Drifts Toward Civel War.” Rare Coin Values and Proven Trends: Smart Strategy for Buying Collectible Coins. U.S. Coin Values. Web. 17 Oct, 2011. <http:// www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/the-nation-drifts-toward-war.html>. • “US History 1 throught he Civil War Class 11.” Paul Roebuck: Archaeology, Geography, Ethiscs Hitory, Social Theory. U.S. History. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. <http://www.roebuckclasses.com/201/classdocs/lecturenotesch14.htm>. • Wikipedia. “Stephen A. Douglas.” Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, 26 Sept. 2011. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Stephen_A._Douglas>. • Keller, Bob. “Bob’s Rock Shop:Rock and Fossil Stamps of the United States.” Bob’s Rock Shop: The First ‘Zine for Mineral Collectors and Rockhounds. Rock and Fossil Stamps of the United States. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. <http:// www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/stamps/united_states/united_states_toc.html>. • Reed, Dale. “Causes of the Civil War- Popular Sovereignty and Westward Expansion- YouTube.” YouTube- Broadcast Yourself. American Civil War Volume 1. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQQJDR_rX30>. • Holt McDougal The Americans. Holt McDougal the Americans. U.S.A.: Y Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. Print. 978-0-547-49115-8. • Primary Sources