Abraham LincolnJune 16th, 1858 “A House divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this Government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved – I do not expect the House to fall – but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.”
The Republican Party Forms • The Kansas- Nebraska Act split the Whig Party • The Southern Whigs dissolved • The Northern Whigs joined with other opponents of slavery and formed the Republican Party
The Republicans Grow • The strength of the Republicans grew in the North • For the 1856 Election they picked John C. Fremont • He lost to James Buchanan, but Fremont won 11 states in the North. • The election showed that the Republican Party had become a major force in The North.
The Case of Dred Scott • Dred Scott was a slave that had lived in Missouri • His owner took him to territories were slavery was illegal. • They returned to Missouri, were his owner died
Dred Scott Cont. • After the owners death, Dred Scott sued for his freedom • He argued that he was a free man because he lived in territories were slavery was illegal
Dred Scott V. Sanford • The case reached the Supreme Court in 1856 • The Court Ruled against him • The court claimed that Scott was not a U.S. Citizen, so there for could not sue in U.S. Courts • Also – Scott was bound by Missouri Code because he was born there • In addition- Congress could not ban slavery in the territories – to do so would violate property rights protected by the 5th Amendment
Reaction To Dred Scott • Southerns cheered the ruling. • northerns were outraged. They looked to the Republicans to check the power of the South. • Republicans charged the Democrats wanted to legalize slavery in all U.S. States • The Illinois Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln To Challenge Stephen Douglas (sponsor of the Kansas – Nebraska Act) for U.S. Senate
Lincoln and Douglas Debates • Through out the election the two men had debates all over Illinois • The debates are now seen as models of political debate • The two men talked about the most pressing issue: the expansion of slavery
Debate Cont. • Lincoln argued the slavery was a “moral, a social and a political wrong.” • He did not want to abolish slavery every where – just stop it from expanding • Douglas argued that popular sovereignty was the best way to address the issue because it was the most democratic method.
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry • John Brown, who murdered three Kansans three years before, added to the sectional tensions • He came up with a plan to inspire slaves to fight for the freedom.
John Brown Cont. • Brown and 18 followers (13 white and 5 black) attempted to capture a U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia • They killed 4 people in the raid and sent out the word to rally and arm local slaves • None came and Brown was captured
Browns death • Brown was convicted and Hung to death • When he died, Abolitionists tolled bells and fired guns in salute • Southerns were enraged by Browns actions and horrified by northerners reactions to his death