Slavery and National Politics Issues and Consequences, 1844-1861
Slavery In The Territories • Big issue—delayed Tx. Annexation—but trumped by “Manifest Destiny” in 1840s. • “Logic” of 2d Party System kept this issue at bay, but Mexican War reopened the issue. • View of Mexican War • Wilmot Proviso • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Slave or Free, Who Decides • Wilmot Proviso • Common Property Argument—J. C. Calhoun • Extension of Mo. Comp. Line—Polk • Popular Sovereignty—Lewis Cass • Supreme Court decides—John Clayton
Wilmot, Calhoun, Polk, Cass, Clayton
1848 Election • Slavery intrudes: Barnburners and Hunkers among NY. Democrats; Conscience and Cotton Whigs in Mass; Freesoilers emerge out of Dems., Whigs, and Liberty Party, Yancey bolts from Dem. Convention. • Van Buren and Liberty party took enough votes to cost the Democrats the electoral vote in New York and the Whigs the electoral vote in Ohio. • Zachary Taylor Won.
Taylor, Cass, Van Buren, Yancey
Toward an Armistice • Slavery in the west; slavery in D. C. More sectional voting patterns. • Territorial Governments have to be organized; Gold Rush allows Ca. to petition for statehood—issue can’t be avoided. • Henry S. Foote (Ms.) pulled revolver on Thomas Hart Benton (Mo) on 4/17/50 • Open talk of secession/Nashville Convention planned.
Last Hurrah for “Harry of the West” Omnibus Proposal, Jan. 29. 1850 • Ca. admitted as Free State • New Mex. Territory organized with no restriction on slavery • “Little” Texas • U. S. assumes Tx’s. natl. debt. • No slavery in D. C. • Slave trade in D. C. • Congressional self-denying ordinance in interstate slave trade • Stronger Fugitive slave law
Speechifying and Dying • Calhoun’s Address, March 4, 1850 • Webster’s “7th of March” Address • Seward’s “Higher Law” Address, March 11, 1850 • Calhound died March 31, 1850 • Bill fashioned out of Omnibus by Committee of 13 died on July 31, 1850. • Zachary Taylor died July 9, 1850
A “Compromise” or an “Armistice” • Fillmore support’s Douglas’ crafting of 5 separate bills with specific voting majorities “engineered” to insure passage. • Surprising results: California was a free state with pro-Southern senators; Utah got a slave code but had only 20 slaves in 1860; Fugitive Slave Act exacerbated northern opinion against the “slave power.” • Nashville Convention fizzled and “fire eater” southerners don’t prevail at the polls in state level elections.