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Natural Resources {Fish}. Objectives. Identify different sections of a lake or pond Determine the external and internal anatomy of fish Explain how fish breathe Differentiate between types of fish found in Arkansas. Reasons to Learn. Why do we need to learn about fish?

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objectives
Objectives
  • Identify different sections of a lake or pond
  • Determine the external and internal anatomy of fish
  • Explain how fish breathe
  • Differentiate between types of fish found in Arkansas
reasons to learn
Reasons to Learn
  • Why do we need to learn about fish?
  • Why are fish important to Arkansas?
  • Why do we need to know how to identify different types of fish?
  • Why do we need to know about fish anatomy?
questions to answer
Questions to Answer
  • What are the different types of a pond?
  • What are the external parts of a fish?
  • What are the internal parts of a fish?
  • What are the different types of fish that are common in Arkansas?
zones of a lake
Zones of a Lake
  • littoral zone extends from the shore just above the influence of waves and spray to a depth where light is barely sufficient for rooted plants to grow.
  • photic zone is the lighted and usually well-mixed portion that extends from the lake surface down to where the light level is 1% of that at the surface
  • aphotic zone is positioned below the littoral and photic zones to bottom of the lake where light levels are too low for photosynthesis
  • pelagic zone is the surface water layer in offshore areas beyond the influence of the shoreline
how f ish w ork
How Fish Work
  • Breathing
    • Starts with the mouth by taking in water
    • Water is pumped through the gills
    • Water passes over the gills and is taken in by blood vessels
    • Oxygen is absorbed directly into the blood stream
how fish work
How Fish Work
  • Reproduction
    • Two strategies
      • Egg laying
        • Lay eggs in protected areas (such as rocks)
        • Ex. Fish that are found in the wild
      • Live bearing
        • Carry the fry in their mouth for about a month before delivering them
        • Ex. Mollies, Guppies, and Swordtail
crappie
Crappie
  • most abundant in reservoirs, oxbow lakes and backwater of large rivers
  • thrive among woody cover or aquatic vegetation along the shoreline
  • feed on fish but also eat insects.
  • Spawning begins when the water temperature hits 64 degrees
  • Males build nests and guard the eggs and fry
  • crappie are among the most popular panfish in Arkansas and second only to largemouth bass as sport fish
  • Types of Crappie: Black, White
sunfish
Sunfish
  • thrive in still, warm water such as ponds and small lakes.
  • they have been widely stocked in farm ponds.
  • spawning begins in May and can last until July; nests are built close together.
  • ales guard eggs but not free-swimming fry.
  • Types: bluegill, redear, green, longear, hybrid
trout
Trout
  • they reproduce in the White River, below Bull Shoals Dam and in the Little Red River
  • seasonal fishing closures in the early winter on the White River protect the most active spawning areas
  • feed mostly on small aquatic invertebrates, while adults prefer crayfish and fish
  • Most trout waters in Arkansas must be stocked to maintain the population, but brown trout are one of the few trout species that reproduces well in Arkansas, offering a "wild" fishery with only minor stockings
  • Types of trout: Brown, Rainbow, Cut-throat, Brook, Lake
slide13
Bass
  • Largemouth bass spawn in Arkansas in April.
  • The male aggressively guards the nest until the young begin to swim away.
  • They feed first on zooplankton then switch to insects, fish, crayfish and even small animals or birds.
  • They’re usually found along the shoreline or other structure in lakes and streams.
  • The largemouth bass has the largest mouth for its size of any freshwater fish
  • Largemouth, smallmouth and spotted bass are called black bass because their “fry” (recently hatched young) are black
  • Types of bass: Largemouth, Spotted, Smallmouth, white, Yellow, Striped, Hybrid Striped
catfish
Catfish
  • Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior
  • Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food
  • Most catfish are bottom feeders
  • Types of catfish: Channel, Flathead, Blue
slide16
Carp
  • The common carp usually color varies from brassy green or yellow, to golden brown, or even silvery. The belly is usually yellowish-white
  • Common carp may live in excess of 47 years and weigh over 75 pounds
  • Grass carp is one of the largest members of the minnow family.
  • They are capable of consuming 40% to 300% of their body weight per day in plant material.
  • The silver carp was first introduced to the U.S. in Arkansas in 1973 by a fish farmer.
  • The Arkansas and White River systems both hold silver carp.
  • Types of carp: Common, Grass, Silver
review
Review
  • Today we have discussed….
    • different zones of a lake
    • External and internal anatomy of fish
    • Common fish found in Arkansas