slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
FISH PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
FISH

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 59

FISH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 388 Views
  • Uploaded on

saltwater fish. water diffuses out. ions diffuse in. drink a lot ... 3 inches fish/ gallon. saltwater. 0.5 inches fish/ gallon. excluding tail fin. Ammonia ...

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'FISH' - Kelvin_Ajay


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

FISH

FISH BIOLOGY AND HUSBANDRY

slide4
Fins
  • supported by rays
    • two types of rays
      • soft
      • spines
fin identification
Fin Identification
  • unpaired fins
    • dorsal
    • caudal
    • anal
  • paired fins
    • pectoral
    • pelvic
slide6
Skin
  • epidermis
    • mucous glands
    • alarm cells
    • cuticle
  • dermis
    • scales
  • hypodermis
scales
Scales
  • placoid
  • ganoid
  • cycloid
  • ctenoid
  • absent
lateral line
Lateral line
  • sensory system
    • a line of pores lead to mechanoreceptors
  • environmental information
    • pressure, currents, sound
color
Color
  • cells
    • chromatophores
      • pigments
    • iridophores
      • reflective substances
  • control
    • endocrine system
    • nervous system
respiratory system
Respiratory system
  • lungs
  • gills
    • bilateral
    • operculum
gill structure
Gill structure
  • gill arches
  • primary lamellae (filaments)
  • secondary lamellae
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system
  • 2 chamber heart
    • atrium
    • ventricle
    • sinus venosus
    • bulbus arteriosus
circulation
Circulation
  • venous blood to heart
    • hepatic portal system
    • renal portal system
  • heart to gills
    • via ventral aorta
  • gills to body
    • via dorsal aorta
red blood cells
Red blood cells
  • elliptical and nucleated
  • no bone marrow
  • main source
    • head kidney
white blood cells
White blood cells
  • Similar to mammalian
  • no lymph nodes or GALT
  • lymphocytes > neutrophils
  • lymphoid tissues
    • thymus
    • head kidney
    • spleen
    • melanomacrophage centers
excretory system
Excretory system
  • gills
  • kidneys
    • anterior kidney
    • posterior kidney
osmoregulation
Osmoregulation
  • electrolyte balance
  • freshwater vs saltwater
osmoregulation19
freshwater fish

water diffuses in

ions diffuse out

drink little

lots of dilute urine

actively reabsorb ions

kidneys

gills

saltwater fish

water diffuses out

ions diffuse in

drink a lot

concentrated urine

actively excrete ions

kidneys

gills

gut

Osmoregulation
swim bladder
Swim bladder
  • Two types
    • physoclistic
      • capillary network
    • physostomatous
      • pneumatic duct
  • functions
    • buoyancy
    • sound, pressure detection
digestive system
Digestive system
  • Stomach
  • intestine
    • pyloric
    • middle
    • rectal
    • spiral colon
    • pyloric cecae
  • liver
  • pancreas
nutrition
Nutrition
  • Species variation
    • food
    • feeding behavior
      • time
      • location
      • obtaining food
  • general fish nutrition
    • protein and lipids > carbohydrates
neuroendocrine system
Neuroendocrine system
  • brain
    • forebrain
      • olfactory bulbs
    • midbrain
      • optic lobes
    • cerebellum
    • spinal cord
electrical system
Electrical system
  • electric organs
  • electroreceptors
  • examples
    • electric eel
    • electric catfish
    • electric ray
biolumination
Biolumination
  • self -luminous
    • photophores
    • luciferase
  • symbiotic bacteria
water environments
Water environments
  • freshwater
  • brackish water
  • saltwater
slide28
Freshwater system

specific gravity: 1.00

Brackish system

specific gravity 1.01

Saltwater system

specific gravity: 1.02

bioload
Bioload
  • Nonaerated freshwater
    • 1 inch fish/ gallon
  • aerated freshwater
    • 3 inches fish/ gallon
  • saltwater
    • 0.5 inches fish/ gallon
  • excluding tail fin
ammonia
Ammonia
  • Nitrogenous
  • fish waste product
  • toxic
nitrification
Nitrification
  • BacteriaBacteria
  • (Nitrosomas)(Nitrobacter)
    • ammonia nitrite nitrate
conditioning a new tank
Conditioning a new tank
  • seeding bacteria
  • limited population
  • time
slide33
PH
  • ranges
    • freshwater: 7.0-7.6
    • brackish: 7.0-7.6
    • saltwater: 8.1-8.3
decreased ph
effects

inhibits Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter

direct health problems for fish

control

check bioload

remove waste

calcium rich substrate

sodium bicarbonate

temporary

Decreased PH
increased ph
effects

ammonia is more toxic

nonionized

direct health problems for fish

control

check substrates for calcium rich ones

peat moss

acetic acid

temporary

Increased PH
oxygen
Oxygen
  • water:0.7% dissolved oxygen
  • oxygen solubility decreases as:
    • temperature increases
    • salinity increases
  • low oxygen effects:
    • respiratory distress in fish
    • inhibits Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter
oxygen37
Oxygen
  • replenished by:
    • air:water interface
    • aeration system
  • monitored as DO
    • Dissolved Oxygen
temperature
Temperature
  • preferred ranges variable
    • 0 – 45C
  • temperature changes should be gradual
    • no more than 1 C/ 2 minutes in tank
    • no more than 2 -3 C between tanks
light
Light
  • light cycles
    • 12/12
    • at least 8-10/24 hours of darkness
  • light source
    • fluorescent most common
    • no incandescent
    • no direct sunlight
chlorine chloramines
Chlorine/ Chloramines
  • toxic/ lethal to fish
  • removal
    • aeration and time
    • sodium thiosulfate
    • carbon filter
heavy metals
Heavy metals
  • toxic/lethal to fish
  • sources
    • metal pipes
    • metal tank frames
    • metal decoration
  • saltwater
    • extremely corrosive to metals
filtration
Filtration
  • mechanical filtration
  • chemical filtration
  • biological filtration
mechanical filtration
Physically traps suspended particles

sand, gravel, floss, plastic,diatomaceous earth

Mechanical Filtration
biological filtration
Biological Filtration
  • Nitrification
    • bacteria
    • substrates:
      • plastic, gravel, live rock, decorations
social behaviors
Social Behaviors
  • species specific
environmental behavior
Environmental behavior
  • geotaxis
  • phototaxis
  • electrotaxis
  • thygmotaxis
  • rheotaxis
  • chemotaxis
reproductive system
Reproductive system
  • female
    • ovaries
    • oviduct
    • no uterus
  • male
    • testes
fertilization
Fertilization
  • External fertilization
    • open-spawners
    • substrates
  • Internal fertilization
breeding
Breeding
  • females and males
  • hermaphrodites
gestation
Gestation
  • oviparous
  • ovoviviparous
  • viviparous
spawning
Spawning
  • Control
    • hormonal
    • environmental cues
    • seasonal
  • Ovulation
    • once/season
    • more than once/season
  • Inducible
research58
Research
  • Advantages
    • diversity-30,000 species
    • easy to maintain in large numbers
    • reproduce rapidly
    • External fertilization/large eggs
  • many species used
    • Zebrafish, Japanese meduka
research areas
Research areas
  • embryology
  • growth and regenertion
  • genetics and transgenics
  • toxicology and environmental monitoring
  • neoplasia
  • ocular
  • pharmacodynamics
  • physiology