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FISH
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FISH

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  1. FISH FISH BIOLOGY AND HUSBANDRY

  2. soft rayed teleosts spiney rayed teleosts TaxonomyTeleosts = bony fish

  3. BIOLOGY

  4. Fins • supported by rays • two types of rays • soft • spines

  5. Fin Identification • unpaired fins • dorsal • caudal • anal • paired fins • pectoral • pelvic

  6. Skin • epidermis • mucous glands • alarm cells • cuticle • dermis • scales • hypodermis

  7. Scales • placoid • ganoid • cycloid • ctenoid • absent

  8. Lateral line • sensory system • a line of pores lead to mechanoreceptors • environmental information • pressure, currents, sound

  9. Color • cells • chromatophores • pigments • iridophores • reflective substances • control • endocrine system • nervous system

  10. Anatomy overview

  11. Respiratory system • lungs • gills • bilateral • operculum

  12. Gill structure • gill arches • primary lamellae (filaments) • secondary lamellae

  13. Cardiovascular system • 2 chamber heart • atrium • ventricle • sinus venosus • bulbus arteriosus

  14. Circulation • venous blood to heart • hepatic portal system • renal portal system • heart to gills • via ventral aorta • gills to body • via dorsal aorta

  15. Red blood cells • elliptical and nucleated • no bone marrow • main source • head kidney

  16. White blood cells • Similar to mammalian • no lymph nodes or GALT • lymphocytes > neutrophils • lymphoid tissues • thymus • head kidney • spleen • melanomacrophage centers

  17. Excretory system • gills • kidneys • anterior kidney • posterior kidney

  18. Osmoregulation • electrolyte balance • freshwater vs saltwater

  19. freshwater fish water diffuses in ions diffuse out drink little lots of dilute urine actively reabsorb ions kidneys gills saltwater fish water diffuses out ions diffuse in drink a lot concentrated urine actively excrete ions kidneys gills gut Osmoregulation

  20. Swim bladder • Two types • physoclistic • capillary network • physostomatous • pneumatic duct • functions • buoyancy • sound, pressure detection

  21. Digestive system • Stomach • intestine • pyloric • middle • rectal • spiral colon • pyloric cecae • liver • pancreas

  22. Nutrition • Species variation • food • feeding behavior • time • location • obtaining food • general fish nutrition • protein and lipids > carbohydrates

  23. Neuroendocrine system • brain • forebrain • olfactory bulbs • midbrain • optic lobes • cerebellum • spinal cord

  24. Electrical system • electric organs • electroreceptors • examples • electric eel • electric catfish • electric ray

  25. Biolumination • self -luminous • photophores • luciferase • symbiotic bacteria

  26. WATER QUALITY

  27. Water environments • freshwater • brackish water • saltwater

  28. Freshwater system specific gravity: 1.00 Brackish system specific gravity 1.01 Saltwater system specific gravity: 1.02

  29. Bioload • Nonaerated freshwater • 1 inch fish/ gallon • aerated freshwater • 3 inches fish/ gallon • saltwater • 0.5 inches fish/ gallon • excluding tail fin

  30. Ammonia • Nitrogenous • fish waste product • toxic

  31. Nitrification • BacteriaBacteria • (Nitrosomas)(Nitrobacter) • ammonia nitrite nitrate

  32. Conditioning a new tank • seeding bacteria • limited population • time

  33. PH • ranges • freshwater: 7.0-7.6 • brackish: 7.0-7.6 • saltwater: 8.1-8.3

  34. effects inhibits Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter direct health problems for fish control check bioload remove waste calcium rich substrate sodium bicarbonate temporary Decreased PH

  35. effects ammonia is more toxic nonionized direct health problems for fish control check substrates for calcium rich ones peat moss acetic acid temporary Increased PH

  36. Oxygen • water:0.7% dissolved oxygen • oxygen solubility decreases as: • temperature increases • salinity increases • low oxygen effects: • respiratory distress in fish • inhibits Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter

  37. Oxygen • replenished by: • air:water interface • aeration system • monitored as DO • Dissolved Oxygen

  38. Temperature • preferred ranges variable • 0 – 45C • temperature changes should be gradual • no more than 1 C/ 2 minutes in tank • no more than 2 -3 C between tanks

  39. Light • light cycles • 12/12 • at least 8-10/24 hours of darkness • light source • fluorescent most common • no incandescent • no direct sunlight

  40. Chlorine/ Chloramines • toxic/ lethal to fish • removal • aeration and time • sodium thiosulfate • carbon filter

  41. Heavy metals • toxic/lethal to fish • sources • metal pipes • metal tank frames • metal decoration • saltwater • extremely corrosive to metals

  42. Filtration • mechanical filtration • chemical filtration • biological filtration

  43. Physically traps suspended particles sand, gravel, floss, plastic,diatomaceous earth Mechanical Filtration

  44. chemically binds and removes dissolved compounds charcoal, protein skimmer, UV, ozone Chemical Filtration

  45. Biological Filtration • Nitrification • bacteria • substrates: • plastic, gravel, live rock, decorations

  46. BEHAVIOR

  47. Social Behaviors • species specific

  48. Intraspecies Behavior

  49. Interspecies Behaviors ?

  50. Feeding behavior