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MARINE LIFE

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  1. MARINE LIFE START HERE FOR EXAM V

  2. Environmental Zones Fig. 12.21 p 363 • Epipalagic Zone - plankton - jelly fish - • Bathyoalagic - fish with bioluminescent organs • Nekton - most fish - mammals • Intertidal Zone - cyanobacteria - crustations - mollusk - flat fish • Hadal - bacteria

  3. Animals along the shore • Rocky shore Fig 15.2 p 440- 441 • Inter-tidal zonation • Plants Fig 15.14 p 449 (book) S&A 185 &186 • Tide pool • Soft sediment Fig 15.8 p 445

  4. Life in the ocean • Living conditions in the open ocean • Three dimensional world • Largest space for life on Earth • Oceanic life styles (three) • Drifting (planktonic or pelagic) • Swimming (nektonic) • Attached (benthic)

  5. Sea water density (1.025 g/cc) greater than air (0.0012) therefore able to support the plants/animals, so heavy skeleton is not needed • Distributions controlled by ocean conditions • Most marine organisms are cold blooded – warm water increases metabolism, cold water decreases metabolism

  6. Effect of sinking • drag - resistance to sinking (your hand out of the car window) • density of organism • body morphology - appendages • Fig 12.9 p 355 T 115 • a. warm water b. cold water • fat in tissues • warm water less dense, thus more appendages

  7. Defensive strategies • small size - include bacteria • transparency - difficult for predators to see • schooling - safety in numbers - confuse predators • vertical migration - stay in darker water at day, and move to top at night to feed - some may migrate several hundred meters daily

  8. Defensive strategies cont. • color - blue on top - red further down (red light is absorbed by water) - gray or black in deepest oceans • counter shading - darker on top, lighter on bottom Fig. 12.19 p 378 (book) S&A 152 • change size by adding water - makes organism look bigger than it is (puffer fish) • spines - harder to swallow (rock fish) • See next slides

  9. Camauflage

  10. Camauflage

  11. Pigment cells, camouflage

  12. PLANKTONIC LIFE Phytoplankton

  13. Food source for most marine organisms • Fig 12.3 p 350T 118 • Classified by size • nannooplankton - < 50 micrometers coastal- and open- equatorial waters • bacterioplankton (ultraplankton) < 0.005 mm in diameter

  14. microphytoplankton 0.07 - 1 mm • macroplankton (large floating organisms) - large standing crop at higher latitudes

  15. DiatomsFig 12.11 p 356 (book) • diatoms -> smaller with each split of shells - eventually so small that it looses shells and grows to larger size then divide to -> two daughter cells

  16. Rock Snot Invasive algae • Didymosphenia geminata • River bed covered by Didymo

  17. Dinoflagellates - second in abundance after diatoms Fig 13.9 c, d p 381(book) • nutrients in low concentrations taken up by molecular diffusion • favors microscopic organisms • have a flagellum

  18. Dinoflagellates

  19. Nannoplankton and bacteria • widespread in open ocean • dominant producers in open ocean 90% of standing crop • coccolithophores Fig 4.8 a p 109 & Fig 13.9 b p381 (book) • silicoflagellates p 115 • Using the next slide find the names of the organisms from Fig 4.8

  20. Coccolithophores & silicoflagellates

  21. Box 13.1 p 382- 383 Read this • Red tides - dinoflagellates • caused by Gonyaulax • plankton blooms that discolor water • often concentrated by physical processes - water run off - fertilizers - top of water column gets more sun - cyanobacteria thrive

  22. Fig 13B

  23. Red Tide

  24. PLANKTONIC LIFE ZOOPLANKTON

  25. ZOOPLANKTON • T 118 and Fig 12.3 p 350 • Feed on phytoplankton, usually by filter-feeding • Few can swim and pursue prey • Narrow temperature range (few degrees) • Many are larval forms of benthic organisms

  26. ZOOPLANKTON

  27. Three types of zooplankton • 1. Holoplankton • 2. Meroplankton • 3. Gelatinous plankton

  28. 1. Holoplankton • entire life as plankton - dominate in the open ocean • Foraminifera live nearly everywhere in the ocean - porous CaCO3 shells Fig 4.8 c, & d p 109 Fig 14.4 p 407 (book) • Radiolaria entirely pelagic - siliceous skeletons Fig 4.8 d p 109 Fig 14.3 d p 407 S&A 168

  29. ZOOPLANKTON • Crustaeca - most numerous - 70+% of all zooplankton • copepods occur throughout the ocean - among numerous marine herbivores Fig 14.5 a with egg sacs, b mating, d appendages to cling to rocks or other larger zooplankton p 408 T 118 g and h

  30. euphausiids (krill) shrimp like large fishes and whales eat krill - krill eat diatoms Fig 14.6 p 409 S&A 167

  31. Crustaeca cont. • pteropods small - pelagic snails - swim vertically (migrate) hundreds of meters daily without shells (carnivorous), • with shells (herbivores) (carbonate shells - form pteropode ooze)

  32. 2. Meroplankton • S&A 171 • larval forms of (bottom dwelling) benthic animals -Abundant in coastal waters • 80% of shallow-water benthic organisms in the tropics have planktonic larvae

  33. Meroplankton cont. • Eggs and sperm of benthic animals are discharged to be fertilized in the water • Maturing larvae must find suitable bottom material on which to settle and grow

  34. Meroplanktoncont. • Success of the young fish in a particular year class is affected by environmental factors: 1) temp, 2) currents, 3) nutrition, and 4) perdition • eggs: days--> larvae: weeks--> juveniles: months--> adult (sexual maturity 4 yrs)

  35. 3. Gelatinous plankton • nearly transparent organisms - trailing tentacles • Siphonophores Portuguese man-of-war - colonies of individuals that live together and function as one animal - nematocysts - threadlike poisonous stingers that can penetrate human skin Fig 14.7 p 409 (book) S&A 170

  36. Can jellyfish mix the ocean?

  37. Gelatinous plankton cont. • Ctenophores Sea walnuts or comb jellies S&A 169

  38. Gelatinous plankton cont • Tunicates - barrel-shaped animals Fig 12.3 j p 350 T118

  39. Feeding strategies • Herbivores - dominate near the surface – feed on phytoplankton • Carnivores - mid-depths - feed on herbivores - vertically migrating organisms • Omnivores - dominate the deeper parts of the ocean - eat anything that sinks out of the surface zone

  40. Reproductive strategies dependent upon resources and population two strategies: opportunistic and nurturing

  41. Opportunistic • common among planktonic organisms • depends upon abundant resources - food energy goes into producing gametes • can live in a hazardous environment - food for adults and other animals

  42. Opportunistic cont. • mature early • produce many eggs or small forms • short life span • do not care for their young

  43. Nurturing • common among larger animals • resource limited - food energy goes into growth and development • produce few offspring • long-lived • care for their young

  44. Open-ocean biological provinces • Controlled by surface currents • Each province supports distinct group of organisms • Phytoplankton widespread - but patchiness due to physical properties (remember the Baring Sea)

  45. Open-ocean biological provinces cont. • Zooplankton more restricted distributions temperature dependent • Physical properties • Langmuir cells • Western boundary currents with their rings • Up welling

  46. Environmental Zones • Fig. 12.21 Table 15.1 p 455 S&A 158 • Benthic - most species and found at all depths Chapter 15 Fig 15.1 p 438 T 130 • Rocky shore zonation (epifauna) algae, crabs • Vertical and intertidal zonation Fig 15.2 a p 440 • Supraliteral zone (splash zone) • Littoral zone (between high and low tide) • Sublittoral zone (always under water) • Grazers, herbivores, ditritus feeders, filter feeders, predators • Soft sediment zone (infauna) • Soft sediment benthos

  47. Snail and anemone (Symbiosis)