Industrialization & Imperialism • AGE OF IMPERIALISM What drove Imperialism? The spread of industrialization through out Europe drove the European nations to seek additional natural resources. European nations began to compete for lands rich in natural resources.
Industrialization & Imperialism • Africa Before Imperialism • Divided into hundreds of ethnic & linguistic groups • Mostly followed traditional beliefs • Some converts to Islam and Christianity • Spoke 1,000 different languages • Ranged from large empires to small villages • Africans kept Europeans out of the interior for over 400 years • Well developed trade network among Africans
Imperialism • Why did other nations want Africa?
THE MORE LAND A NATIONS CONTROLLED THE MORE ______ THE NATION HAD!
Industrialization & Imperialism Imperialism – Example, Belgium Congo, like other regions in Africa was claimed for its natural resources. FYI – Scottish minister, David Livingstone, searched for the source of the Nile River. There was no word from him for several years. An American newspaper hired Henry Stanley to find Livingstone. Livingstone was found by Stanley in 1871, near the source of the Nile. In 1879, Stanley returned to sign treaties with local chiefs giving King Leopold of Belgium personal control over the lands of the Congo. Like Belgium, other European nations rushed to Africa to claim land.
Industrialization & Imperialism Claimed the Congo as his own personal property. Caused the death of up to 20 million Congolese. Used the resources for personal gain. • King Leopold II Political Cartoon showing Belgium’s control of the Congo.
Industrialization & Imperialism The Belgium Congo Requirement of the hand. Leopold’s riches.
Industrialization & Imperialism The Berlin Conference Fear of conflict because of overlapping land claims caused Europeans to look at ways to avoid war. The Berlin Conference. * 14 European nations met in Berlin, Germany * established rules for the division of Africa * nations could claim land by notifying other European nations of the area claimed * divided with little thought to the African people * arbitrary divisions of ethnic and linguistic groups
Industrialization & Imperialism Battle for South Africa Three groups clashed over control of South Africa for about 100 years. - Zulu occupied South Africa - formed a strong empire - were unable to defeat the British (superior weapons) • Boers - Dutch farmers who settled S. Africa in the 1650’s - took over African land to establish farms - when the British took over Cape Colony, the British and the Dutch went to war
Industrialization and Imperialism FYI – To escape the British, thousands of Boers moved north (Great Trek) finding themselves in conflict with Zulu and other tribes whose land they were taking. Boer War • Diamonds and gold were discovered in S. Africa • Boers tried to keep others from gaining political control • Took up arms against the British • Britain won, took control of S. Africa
Industrialization and Imperialism Development of Racism The belief that one group of people is better than another. Have we seen this before the time of imperialism?
Industrialization and Imperialism What does the cartoon suggest?
Imperialism • Social Darwinism • Social theory during Imperialism • Application of “survival of the fittest” to social change • Those who were most fit for survival enjoyed wealth and were considered superior to others. • Non Europeans were considered to be on a lower scale of cultural and physical development. EUROPEANS BELIEVED THEY HAD THE RIGHT AND THE DUTY TO BRING THEIR TECHNOLOGY AND HIGHER STANDARD OF LIVING TO OTHER GROUPS OF PEOPLE.
Industrialization & Imperialism Types of Colonial Control and Key Terms European nations used various means to control the African lands they claimed Indirect Control– local government officials were used - limited self rule - desired to develop future leaders - gov’t institutions, European style, with some local control Direct Control- ruled by foreign officials - no self rule - goal: assimilation - institutions based only on European models
Industrialization & Imperialism Key Terms Colony – governed internally by a foreign power Protectorate – country with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power Sphere of Influence – area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment and trading privileges Economic Imperialism – independent but control exercised by business interests rather than governments
Industrialization & Imperialism FYI – Africa Resists Imperialism • Ethiopia was the only nation to successfully resist imperialism during the period • Menelik II, Ethiopian leader, played Italians, French and British against each other all wanting his nation under their “sphere of influence” • Bought & stock piled weapons from France & Russia • Menelik declared war on the advancing Italians and defeated them! • Liberia, too was able to resist imperialism for a period of time.
Industrialization & Imperialism British Imperialism What does the cartoon indicate?
Industrialization & Imperialism British Colonization in India • Britain developed interest in India in the early 1600’s. • 1757 Britain defeated Indian forces taking control of a large area including Bangladesh. • Before the 19th century the East India Co. (British) ruled most of India with little interference from the British government. • East India Co. had its own army commanded by British officers, staffed by sepoys. (Indian soldiers) • India was referred to as the “brightest jewel in the crown”.
Sepoy Rebellion • Indian Mutiny against Britain
Industrialization and Imperialism British Control India • India became economically valuable after Britain built a railroad system to transport raw materials and plantation crops. • India both benefited from and was oppressed by the British. • + built world’s 3rd largest rail system • + roads, telephone, telegraph, dams, improved health and education, hospitals, schools, and colleges • - British held economic and political power in India • - Restricted Indian owned industry • - Cash cropping caused loss of self-sufficiency • - Reduced food production • - Government/political control of religion & social customs
Industrialization and Imperialism Indian Rebellion • By 1850, Britain controlled most of the Indian subcontinent. • Indians felt Christianity forced upon them • Resented racism expressed toward them • As economic problems increased so did resentment • 1857, rumors spread that the cartridges issued by the British were sealed with pork and beef fat. • Offensive to both Hindus and Muslims • Some sepoys refused to take the ammunition and were jailed • Other sepoys rebelled against the British because of the jailing • Sepoy mutiny lasted more than a year • Britain won, taking direct control of India
Industrialization and Imperialism Indian Nationalist Movement • Early 1800’s Indians began demanding a voice in government • Calls for modernization of the country • Indians resented being 2nd class citizens in their own land • Nationalists groups formed • Indian National Congress, 1855 • Muslim League, 1906 • By early 1900’s, Indians called for self government • Gandhi emerged as the leader of the independence movement • Gandhi led India in a non-violent resistance • Finally in 1947, India was granted independence from Britain British Racism In India