It all began when French was looking for the British in … Baron Lejeune Louis-François
Control of the trade routes was important for ease of access to the places that mattered
Egypt of Muhammad Ali • Understanding Muhammad Ali in the Ottoman Context: • 1798-1801: French occupation • 1805: An ambitious Albanian governor for a significant province. • 1807: Mahmud II became the Ottoman Sultan. • 1811: Muhammad Ali ordered the killing of hundreds of Mamluks • 1826: The Auspicious incident
Egypt of Muhammad Ali • A new modern army composed of peasants • Cotton and sugar production • Impact on landholding patterns • Educational reforms • Tax reforms • Infrastructural reforms • Subordination of the ‘ulama and the Sufi orders • Dynastic rule • A new ruling/landed elite • Autonomy from the Ottoman Empire
The Suez Canal 1858-1869 • 1856: Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French diplomat, obtained a concession from Said Pasha of Egypt to establish the Suez Canal Company • “Joint venture” between France and Egypt (22%) • Egyptian forced labor + French engineers and capital = France as the major share holder. • Difficult working conditions and tens of thousands of deaths • British concerns…?
1869: Canal completed 99 years of Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez New face of Egypt: Port Said, Ismailiya, the Royal Opera House Egypt’s mounting foreign debt and bankruptcy Ottoman parallels 1875: Britain acquired 44% of the shares Anglo-French Debt administration The Suez Canal 1858-1869 Ferdinand de LessepsCover of La Lune 29 September 1867
Egypt - British Colonial Rule • The Urabi revolt: • From 94,000 troops in 1874, 36,000 troops in 1879 • July 1880: the Law of Liquidation: 50 percent of total revenues. • 1881: Colonel Ahmed Urabi established a parliamentary government with the backing of the new Egyptian elites • 1882: British takeover • Nature of opposition under the British rule • Al-azhar • Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Egypt - Wafd • Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” and the League of Nations • Sa’d Zaghlul: • Egypt should be able to represent itself as a self-determined nation at the Paris Conference of 1919 • The original intention of the article of “self-determination” • Popular support for the Wafd • 1922-1952: Three legs of the table • The British • The monarchy • The party Sa’d Zaghlul
Egypt – Nasser King Faruq King Faruq vs. Mustafa al-Nahhas (Wafd): • Elections of 1950 • October 1951: Abrogation of the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty • January 1952: Black Saturday Riots in Cairo • Al-Nahhas resigns • July 1952: The Egyptian Revolution • Faruq abdicates for Fuad II Fuad II
Egypt – Nasser Free Officers • Revolution of 1952 and RCC: Muhammad Naguib, Jamal Abd al-Nasser • 1952: First land reform (1 % owned 70 %). 200-feddans rule • 1953: Abolition of the constitution. • Ban on political parties • Liberation Rally • Saw al-Arab • 1954: Suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood, 78 leading figures arrested Nasser and Naguib
Egypt – Nasser Nasser • 1954: Muslim Brotherhood and the decline of Naguib • Anglo-Egyptian Agreement, British troops were to withdraw from the canal zone in 20 months. • 1955: Dismantling of the Islamic courts • Bandung Conference • Czechoslovak arms agreement • 1956: new constitution • Nasser became the first president in June and was invested with broad powers
Egypt – Nasser Nasser • July 1956: US and GB withdrew support for Aswan Dam • Nasser nationalized the Canal • October: Suez War GB, France and Israel vs. Egypt • November: UN cease-fire • Nationalization of all British and French companies and confiscation of British, French and Jewish property
Egypt – Nasser Nasser’s left turn • 1958: Abolition of foreign schools • 1959: A new labor code min. wage and max. working hours per day. • 1960: Aswan Dam project begins with Soviet assistance • Nationalization of banks • First Arab national TV • 1961: 100-feddan rule • Modern curriculum at al-Azhar • Suppression of the Sufi orders • 1st NAM summit in Yugoslavia • 1962: Arab Socialist Union
Egypt – Nasser Nasser’s international ventures • 1958: UAR • 1958: Federation of Arab Republics • Jordan and Iraq’s Arab Federation • USSR support • 1861: UAR dissolved
Egypt – Nasser Nasser’s defeat • 1861: Dissolution of UAR • 1966: Execution of Qutb • 1967: Six-days war • Promises to resign • 1970: dies of a heart attack
Six Day War: Was the Six Day War A Miracle? Encounters with the Unexplained TV Series DVD: 60 minutes Producer: Total Living Network & Grizzly Adams Productions Hosted by: Jerry Orbach Description: Dr. Price contributes to this in-depth investigation of miraculous events that made an Israeli victory possible in the 1967 Six-Day War. Stories abound of the appearance of mysterious troops and sophisticated weaponry that aided the Israelis in their victory. Was the outcome of this conflict foretold by biblical writings thousands of years prior to the actual event? Was the Israeli victory a miracle? Listen to the amazing eyewitness accounts given by Six Day War veterans and decide for yourself.
Egypt – Sadat Anwar Sadat • 1970: Death of Nasser • 1972: expulsion of the 18,000 Soviet advisors • 1973: (Yom Kippur) War with Israel • 1974: infitah, the “open-door” economic policy • 1975: Gradual abandonment of the one-party system • 1977: Gave a speech at the Knesset: I have chosen to come to you with an open heart and an open mind. I have chosen to give this great impetus to all international efforts exerted for peace. I have chosen to present to you, in your own home, the realities, devoid of any scheme or whim. Not to maneuver, or win a round, but for us to win together, the most dangerous of rounds embattled in modern history, the battle of permanent peace based on justice.
For the sake of our peoples and for the sake of the civilization made by man, we have to defend man everywhere against rule by the force of arms so that we may endow the rule of humanity with all the power of the values and principles that further the sublime position of mankind. • Allow me to address my call from this rostrum to the people of Israel. I pledge myself with true and sincere words to every man, woman and child in Israel. I tell them, from the Egyptian people who bless this sacred mission of peace, I convey to you the message of peace of the Egyptian people, who do not harbor fanaticism and whose sons, Moslems, Christians and Jews, live together in a state of cordiality, love and tolerance. • This is Egypt, whose people have entrusted me with their sacred message. A message of security, safety and peace to every man, woman and child in Israel. I say, encourage your leadership to struggle for peace. Let all endeavors be channeled towards building a huge stronghold for peace instead of building destructive rockets.
Egypt – Sadat • Anwar Sadat delivered his speech to the Knesset on 20 November 1977. He told the Israeli parliament: "We really and truly welcome you to live among us in peace and security." • Talks started in Israel in November and eventually led to the Camp David agreement in March 1979. • President Sadat's overtures to Israel made him popular in the West - he and Menachim Begin were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978. • But he was isolated and snubbed in the Arab world. • In October 1981 he was assassinated by soldiers at a military parade in Cairo.
Egypt – Mubarak • Failing economy • Suppression of the religious groups and alternate political groups • Recent Events