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Adverb Clauses. Reason and purpose: because because of since in order to so that. He went home early because he was sick. Because he was sick, he went home early. Use because of when a noun phrase follows. He came late because of traffic.
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He went home early because he was sick.Because he was sick, he went home early.
Use because of when a noun phrase follows.He came late because of traffic.
So ThatAfter so that use a modal before the verb.I am learning English so thatI can get a better job.I am sosickthatI can’t go to work today.I had sucha bad headache thatI didn’t go to work.
So little/So much + noncount+thatSo few/So many + count + thatThere was so much poverty that ….I have so many books that….She earned so little money that….There were so few students in the class that….
Time expressions:before afterwhenwheneversincewhileduringuntil
When – at that timeWhenever – any time, every timeWhenever I don’t follow my instinct, I make the wrong decision.I will visit my friend Mia when I go to Canada next week.
Even if shows that the condition doesn’t affect the resultIf shows that the condition affects the result.Unless means if notI won’t go if you don’t go.Unless you go, I won’t go.Even if you don’t go, I’ll go.
Even though she speaks English well, she can’t write it.She came to class in spite of the fact that she is sick.
Use in spite of + noun or a nounphrase. A clause doesn’t follow in spite of.In spite of their hard work, they got fired.In spite of the fact that they worked very hard, they still got fired.
Links for Practicehttp://a4esl.org/q/h/mb/adv_cause.htmlhttp://www.arts.uottawa.ca/writcent/hypergrammar/rvnaacls.htmlhttp://www.learn4good.com/languages/evrd_grammar/adverb_clauses_ex.htmhttp://www.learnenglishfeelgood.com/english-reduced-adverb-clauses2.html