Dependent Clauses: Review *Adverb clauses*Adjective clauses* Noun clauses
Dependent Clauses begin with “signal words”: • Which * although • While * that • When * because • Whenever * before • If * what • Until * whatever • Who * whichever • Whom * whose
Dependent Clauses • Q: How do I know when a dependent clause begins and ends? • A: A dependent clause will always begin with a “signal word”. It contains both a subject and a verb.
3 kinds of dependent clauses: • Adjective clauses • Adverb clauses • Noun clause
Adjective Clauses (Review) • Adjectives always describe nouns or pronouns, so adjective clauses are dependent clauses that describe nouns. • Ex: Emily, whose name is on the board, talks too much during class. • “whose name is on the board” describes the noun “Emily”. It is an adjective clause.
Adverb Clauses (Review) • Adverbs describe other adverbs, verbs, or adjectives. Adverb clauses are dependent clauses that describe adverbs, verbs, or adjectives. • Ex: The judge listened when the defendant pleaded his case. • “When the defendant pleaded his case” describes the verb “listened”. It is an adverb clause.
Noun Clauses • Noun clauses DO NOT describe anything! They are dependent clauses that act as one big noun. • Ex: Whatever you want is fine with me. “Whatever you want” is the noun clause. You could mentally replace it with a single-word noun if doing so helps you to better understand the material.
For example… • Whatever you want is fine with me. • You could mentally replace this clause with one word, such as “pizza”. • Pizza is fine with me. Therefore, we now easily see that “whatever you want” is a noun, and actually acts as the subject.
Noun clauses • Noun clauses do not modify or describe anything, but they do act in several ways. Nouns can be: • Subjects • Direct objects • Indirect objects • Predicate nouns • Objects of a preposition phrase
Examples: • Whoever wants to go is welcome. Subject • Lisa smashed whichever plate she could. direct object
Examples: • Mary gave whomever would listen a piece of her mind. Indirect object • The fence you are looking for is that one over there. Predicate noun • We are praying for whichever outcome is best. Object of the PP
Quiz: • True/False • Noun clauses describe nouns.
Answer: • False! Noun clauses do not describe anything. They act as nouns themselves.
Quiz: • What do adjective clauses describe?
Answer: • Nouns or pronouns!
Quiz: • What 3 things can adverb clauses describe?
Answer: • Adverbs • Adjectives • verbs