Complex Sentences Adverb Clauses Adjective Clauses Noun Clauses
Complex Sentences • Remember all clauses are composed of a subject (noun) and a verb. • Some clauses are independent meaning they can stand alone as a complete thought. This is a sentence. • Other clauses are dependent (also called subordinate) meaning that they do not complete a thought but depend on an independent clause to complete the thought.
Complex Sentences • Used alone, dependent clauses are fragments and are errors in writing. • Used with an independent clause, they help add depth and complexity to the structure of the sentence. • There are three types of complex sentences: adverb clauses which answer how, when, why, where, to what extent; adjective clauses, which answer which one, what kind and how many, and noun clauses which function in the same capacity as a noun.
Adverb Clauses • Adverb clauses answer the questions how, when, where, why, to what extent. • They begin with subordinating conjunctions: Some common subordinating conjunctions are since, so that, when, whenever, where, wherever, if, because, after, before, although, even though. • When an adverb clause begins a sentence, writers should use a comma.
Adverb Clauses • Possible combinations: • When a journey begins badly, it rarely ends well. • A journey rarely ends well when it begins badly. • Notice the position of the adverb clause and where the comma is used.
Adjective Clauses • Adjective clauses answer the questions: which one, what kind, how many. • Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that, where. • Adjective clauses are either non-essential, which means that they are not necessary to the meaning of the sentence and are set off by commas, or essential, which means that they are necessary to the meaning of the sentence and are not set off by commas.
Adjective Clauses • Example of non-essential adjective clause: Even his eyes, which had been young, looked old. • Example of essential adjective clause: Scientists who explore the sea face many hazards.
Noun Clauses • Noun clauses function in the same way that a noun functions: subject, predicate nominative, direct object, indirect object or object of the preposition. • You will not use commas with noun clauses because they will function the same as the noun functions in a sentence. • Noun clauses may begin with words such as when, that, where, who, whichever, whoever, how.
Noun Clauses • Noun clause used as the subject: • How students can apply for college loans was the speaker’s topic. • What I like most about Harriet is that she never complains.
Noun Clauses • Noun clause used as a predicate nominative: • My suggestion is that we all meet again tomorrow. • What I like most about Harriet is that she never complains.
Noun Clauses • Noun clause used as a direct object: • Many modern historians question whether Columbus was truly the first European to explore the Americas. • Psychologists have learned that everyone dreams during sleep.
Noun Clauses • Noun clause used as a indirect object: • Ms. Romero offers whoever completes additional assignments extra credit. • The radio station will give whoever can answer the next question one hundred dollars.
Noun Clauses • Noun clause used as an object of a preposition: • Write about whomever you admire. • Chris will do well at whatever he attempts.
Complex sentences – Adverb clauses • I don’t like to travel unless someone is with me. • If we have a choice in the matter, we like to go camping. • Whenever she travels, she prefers to go alone. • Many people travel because they crave excitement. • I don’t like to travel even if someone is with me.
Complex sentence – Adjective clauses • Exploration is not for someone whose nerves are weak. • The waves, which pounded the shore, were 12 feet tall. • He took the boat that has no anchor. • The day before the storm hit was clear and calm. • Those were the days when no one expected to survive such a storm.
Complex sentences – Noun clauses • Whatever doesn’t kill us makes us stronger. • Travel tests how we cope with problems. • It gives whoever wants it practice with flexibility. • New experiences are what we crave. • Turning whichever corner we find brings new excitement. • Who we are determines our ability to face obstacles.
Compound/complex sentences • When you’re thirsty, you may want to drink the river water, but it’s really not a good idea. • He loved places where he had never been, and he enjoyed the different cultures. • He may shoot 500 rolls of film; however, the editors choose a few that fit their needs. • McCurry takes precautions, but he knows that anything can happen.