Adverb Clauses 8th Grade English Clauses and Verbals
Today’s Notes: Apr. 8, 2010 V. Adverb Clauses A. Modify verbs in the independent clause. 1. Tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions. 2. Begins with a subordinating conjunction. 3. If the adverb clause is at the beginning, set it off with a comma; if it is at the end, don’t. B. Ex. My little sister acts up whenever we go to the museum .
Let’s review Adjective Clauses! • What is an adjective clause? • How can we find one in the sentence? What is the tip-off word that every adjective phrase starts with? • What do adjective clauses modify again?
Today… • We are going to learn how to identify and use another type of clause-the adverb clause. • Just like with adjective clauses, if you know what to look for, you will have no trouble picking them out in a sentence!
Adverb Clauses • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that often modifies, or describes, the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence. • An adverb clause tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions the action occurs.
An example: • After she bought safe equipment, Leigh explored the wreck of the Britannic. • In this sentence, the adverb clause after she bought safe equipment modifies the verb explored. • The adverb clause tells when Leigh explored the wreck of the Britannic.
Another Look: • Scuba divers wear tanks because they cannot breathe underwater. • In this sentence, the adverb clause because they cannot breathe underwater modifies the verb wear. • The adverb clause tells why scuba divers wear tanks.
Introducing an adverb clause • Part of what makes finding an adjectiveclause so easy is that it will start with a relative pronoun. • Well, finding an adverb phrase is just as easy. • It is all about finding the subordinating conjunction!
Hey, I Remember These! • Subordinating conjunctions signal an adverb clause, a subordinating conjunction!
Adverb Clauses and Commas • You usually don’t use a comma before an adverb phrase that comes at the end of a sentence. • Jim dove to the wreck of the Britannic because he was interested in how it sank. • However, you do use a comma after an adverb clause that introduces a sentence. • Because of the underwater mine, the Britannic sunk quickly.
Exercise • Identify the adverb clause in the following sentence. • Identify the subordinating conjunction. • What verb is it modifying?
Exercise • Divers wear wet suits and rubber fins when they swim. • They wear wet suits because the water might be cold. • Divers wear masks since they need them for underwater vision. • After you dive for the first time, you will have more confidence. • Divers wear weighted belts when they want to stay underwater for a long time.
Exercise • When they return to the surface, divers should rise slowly and carefully. • Divers can suffer the bends if they rise to the surface too quickly. • Because this condition can occur, divers must learn how to control their ascent. • Although they sometimes are in a hurry, divers must rise slowly. • Divers should work with partners whenever they dive in unfamiliar waters.
So, let’s recap… • What did we learn today? • Adverb clause? • Subordinating Conjunctions
The list in one slide… • A sentence is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. • A simple sentence has one complete subject and one complete predicate. • The complete subject names whom or what the sentence is about. • The complete predicate tells what the subject does or has. Sometimes it can also tell what the subject is or is like. • A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences. • Each simple sentence is called an independent, or main, clause. • A main clause has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence. • A complex sentence has a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. • A subordinate clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate but DOES NOT express a complete thought. • It is always combined with a main clause. • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun in the main clause of a complex sentence. • An adjective clause is very similar to an appositive because it adds extra information to the sentence. • An adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun. Relative pronouns signal a subordinate clause, which cannot stand alone. • An essential clause is an adjective clause that is necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear. • Do NOT use commas to set off an essential clause from the rest of the sentence. • Remove an essential clause and change the meaning of the sentence! • A nonessential clause is an adjective clause that is not necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear. • Use commas to set off a nonessential clause from the rest of the sentence. • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that often modifies, or describes, the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence. • An adverb clause tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions the action occurs. • Subordinating conjunctions signal an adverb clause, a subordinating conjunction!