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Alexander’s Empire

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  1. Alexander’s Empire Chapter 5 Section 4

  2. Key Terms • Philip II • Macedonia • Alexander the Great • Darius

  3. Philip Builds Macedonian Power • Macedonia- located just north of Greece • Lived in mountain villages and not city-states • Thought of themselves as Greeks • Greeks looked down on them as uncivilized

  4. Philip’s Army • 359 Philip II becomes king of Macedonia • Brilliant general and ruthless politician • Well trained army • Organized into phalanxes of 16 men across and 16 deep • Each had a 18 foot pike • Used fast moving cavalry to crush opponents

  5. Conquest of Greece • Demosthenes tried to warn Greeks about Philip • 338 BC Macedonia defeats Greece • City-states retained self government • Greece under control of Philip

  6. Conquest of Greece • Philip wanted to invade Persia • 336 BC stabbed and killed at his daughter’s wedding • Alexander became king • Over the next 13 years would be known as Alexander the Great

  7. Alexander Defeats Persia • 20 years old when he became king • Taught by Aristotle • Learned to ride a horse • Command troops • Thebes rebelled • Alexander destroyed the city • Killed 6,000 Thebans • Survivors sold into slavery • Used Thebes as an example

  8. Invasion of Persia • 334 BC uses 35,000 troops • 40,000 Persians • Met a Grancius River • Alexander charged and defeated the Persians • Darius III-Persian king vowed to crush the invaders

  9. Invasion of Persia • 50-75,000 Persians to face Macedonians • Outnumbered Alexander orders his troops break through a weak point • Army charged straight at Darius • Darius fled followed by his army • Alexander had control over Anatolia

  10. Conquering the Persian Empire • Darius tried to negotiate a truce • Alexander rejected the offer and announced he would conquer the whole Persian Empire • Alexander marched into Egypt in 332 BC • Welcomed as a liberator and crowned pharaoh

  11. Conquering the Persian Empire • Founded Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile • Left Egypt for Mesopotamia • 250,000 Persians • Fought near ancient Nineveh • Massive phalanx and cavalry charges crumble Persian lines • Alexander occupies Babylon

  12. Alexander in India • Ruled southwest Asia • 326 BC Alexander and his army reached the Indus Valley • Indian army blocked his path • After 11 years and 11,000 miles Alexander agreed to turn back

  13. Alexander in India • 323 BC army reaches Babylon • Alexander announces an organization to his empire • Constructs cities, roads, harbors and conquer Arabia • Alexander get sick and dies at age 32

  14. Alexander’s Legacy • Alexander’s generals fought to control the empire • 3 leaders won out • Antigonus- Macedonia and Greek city-states • Ptolemy-took title of pharaoh • Selecus-took most of old Persian Empire • Governed with complete power ignore democracy

  15. Alexander’s Legacy • Alexander adopted Persian dress • Married a Persian women • Included Persians and other peoples in his army • New culture emerged a blend of Greek and Eastern customs