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Islam PowerPoint Presentation

Islam

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Islam

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  1. Islam Introduction

  2. Arabia 6th century • Byzantine Empire • Greek-speaking Roman Empire • Capital at Constantinople • Christian vs. • Sassanid (Persian) Empire • Euphrates to Indus Rivers • Capital near ancient Babylon, modern Baghdad • Zoroastrian / Zarathustrian

  3. Byanztine Empire 600s

  4. Sassanid (Persian) Empire

  5. Arabia 6th century • Central & North Arabia: Bedouin tribes • South Arabia: agriculture, towns, states • Caravan routes: Palestine (Christian, Byzantine) Persia & India & China • Mecca: community of merchants at center of caravan routes

  6. Bedouin Religion • Each tribe had own gods & goddesses • Pilgrimage centers with “idols” to tribal deities • Jinn spirits & Evil Eye • Mecca: Zam-zam well -- sanctuary • Mecca: ka’ba shrine with many “idols,” including black stone (meteorite?)

  7. 6th century Mecca • Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism widely known • al – lah = “the god” or “god” worshipped as supreme God by some, including Mohammed’s father cAbdallah • Desire among town-dwelling merchants for monotheistic rather than tribal religion?

  8. Prophet Mohammed • Born 571 (probably) in Mecca, in Quraysh clan • Father cAbdallah died before or soon after Mohammed’s birth • Mother Amina died when Mohammed was 6 • Prophet was an orphan

  9. Prophet Mohammed • Taken in by uncle Abd Manaf ( = servant of goddess Manaf), usually known as Abu Talib ( = father of Talib) • In 20s, rich widow Khadija employed him as a caravan merchant • Khadija (at 40) married Mohammed (at 25) • Had six children, but both boys died

  10. Prophet Mohammed • By mid-30s, retreated during month of Ramadan to refuge / cave on Mt. Hira (north of Mecca) to meditate or pray. • 610 (age 40) heard voice of angel Gabriel ordering him to “recite!” Recite in the name of your Lord who created who created man from clots of blood Recite! Your Lord is the most Bountiful One who by the pen taught man what he did not know

  11. Gabriel appearing to Mohammed Turkish, 18th century

  12. Gabriel ordering Mohammed to recite! Turkish painting 1595

  13. Prophet Mohammed • More “recitations” followed • Mohammed terrified & doubted, but Khadija reassured him • New religion worshipping Allah began to take shape • Khadija 1st convert; cousin cAli was 2nd

  14. Hijra: emigration • Preached submission (“islam”) to supreme God (“al-lah”) • Opposed tribal worship of lesser gods and idols • Merchants + tribal & town leaders opposed him -- rumors of assassination • 622 hijra (emigration) to Medina

  15. Medina • Mohammed built first mosque and created first Muslim society – devising rules in accordance with recitations • Quran: recitations of God • Hadith: sayings of the Prophet • Sunna: exemplary life of the Prophet

  16. Battles • Medinan Muslims raided caravans from Mecca • Meccans sent large force to protect caravan, which Prophet & Muslims defeated at Badr • Adopted rites distinct from Jews, and drove some from Medina • Meccan army defeated Medinan Muslims below Mt. Uhud

  17. Battle of Uhud Turkish painting 1594

  18. Battles • Muslim expeditions drove off several tribal groups preparing to attack Medina • Conflicts with remaining tribe of Jews ended with their massacre in 627 (the details of responsibility in dispute) • Created state at Medina • Recitations give rules for Muslim society

  19. Battles • Mohammed and Meccans signed treaty that allowed Prophet to make pilgrimage to Kaba shrine • 630 Mohammed raised army of 10,000 and marched on Mecca • Mecca surrendered without fight

  20. Mohammed pilgrimage to Kaba Turkish 1595

  21. Mohammed advancing On Mecca (with four angels) 1595 painting

  22. Battles • Mohammed proclaimed Allah Akbar at black stone; destroyed other idols • Meccans acknowledged him as messenger of God and swore obedience

  23. Mohammed entering Mecca German 19th century

  24. Mohammed destroying idols at Kaba Persian, 11th century

  25. Died 632 Death of the Prophet 1595 Turkish painting

  26. Fatiha In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful. Praise be to God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds; Most Compassionate, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek, Show us the straight way, The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.

  27. Sunni and Shi’i • cAli: cousin of Prophet first male convert to Islam son-in-law (married daughter Fatima) 4th caliph – head of Muslim community • Shi’i = “partisans of Ali” believe community should be led by descendant of the Prophet

  28. 632 - 656 • Arab-Muslim armies conquered Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt • First 3 caliph-s (heads of Muslim community): from Arab tribes that had supported the Prophet

  29. 656 – 661: Civil War • 3rd caliph – Uthman – member of Prophet’s tribe, killed by rebel tribe • cAli made 4th caliph in Kufa (Iraq) • Relative of Uthman in Damascus claimed caliphate • Battle ended in stalemate • cAli assassinated • Mu’awiya became caliph in Damascus

  30. 661 - 680 • Husayn -- 2nd son of cAli & Fatima – moved into Iraq to continue fight against “usurper” caliphs, now Yazid • 680: Husayn and family surrounded and killed at Karbala (Iraq) • Martyrdom of Husayn became central event for Shi’I • cAshura commemoration: passion play

  31. Husayn surrounded by Yazid’s army

  32. Husayn attacked at Karbala

  33. Husayn martyred at Karbala

  34. Imam Husayn mosque Karbala

  35. Husayn’s tomb, Karbala

  36. Ashurapilgrimage to Imam Husayn mosque,Karbala

  37. Ashura “passion play”

  38. Ashura mourning

  39. Ashura self-flagellation

  40. Ashuraprocessionflagellation

  41. Passion of Christ

  42. Husayn

  43. Feb 2006, Samara:bombing of Golden Mosque with tombs of Ali & Hassan

  44. Sunni and Shi’i • Shi’i: Imam = divinely-inspired, infallible guide • Ayatollah rules in place of Imam • Mahdi: “occulted” imam will return in final days to prepare for Judgment Day • Ashura martyrdom celebration • Sunni: Caliph = selected by community of believers • Ramadan & ‘Ayd al-Adha celebration

  45. Arab-Muslim Civilization • 650 – 750: Muslim conquests Northern India to North Africa & Spain • 750 – 1000: Formation of Arab-speaking Muslim civilization

  46. Spread of Islam 632 - 733

  47. Al Azhar Mosque, Cairo

  48. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

  49. Mosque, Isfahan -- Iran