Empire & Expansion 1890-1909 We assert that no nation can long endure half Republic and half Empire, and we warn the American people that imperialism abroad will lead quickly to despotism at home. Democratic National Platform, 1900
Post –Civil War America • Americans remained indifferent to the outside world-mostly • America absorbed in Reconstruction, the new industrial economy, blight in the cities, and settling the west. • At the close of the 19th century, American foreign policy shifted.
Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
Cartoon-European grab bag European nations colonizing--US needed to do the same or become an insignificant county……
Seward’s Folly Midway Islands Latin America, Hawaii and Asia • In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia. • Seward bought the uninhabited Midway Islands for use as repairing and refueling stations for navy vessels in the Pacific. • The United States signed a treaty with Hawaii and took a more active role in protecting Latin America. • US policy would expand into the Philippines and negotiate trade treaties. IMPERIALISM Expanding U.S. Interests
American Interest in Asia Before the Civil War • Caleb Cushing Expedition (1844)- Mass. Lawyer sent to China by Pres. John Tyler. * Treaty of Wanghia • US citizens in China accused of crimes only tried by US consular offices • Right to buy land in the 5 treaty ports & set up churches • US gets “most favored nation trade status with China like the British had.
US Interest in Asia Before Civil War 2. Matthew Perry Expedition (1853-4): opened two Japanese ports to US trade. * Treaty of Kanagawa • Opened ports of Shimoda & Hakodate. • Guaranteed safety of shipwrecked US sailors ** ended Japan’s 200 year policy of seclusion.
Reasons for US Interest in Overseas American Imperialism Post Civil War
1.Evangelism & Foreign Missions • Post Civil war- the major Protestant religions sponsored missions in foreign lands. • By 1900, 23 Protestant denominations had missions in China- mostly staffed by women. • **Rev. Josiah Strong (Congregational Minister)- wrote Our Country: Its Possible Future andIts Present Crisis; promoted Anglo-Saxonism. * Inspired Missionaries “imperialism of righteousness” to Christianize & “civilize”. • The *“White Man’s Burden”- Rudyard Kipling
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country:Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future….The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited, and will soon be taken. Then, will the world enter upon a new stage of its history----the final competition of races, for which the Angle-Saxon is being schooled….
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. Then this race of unequalled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind it----the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty the purest Christianity, the highest civilization…will spread itself over the earth…. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. upon Mexico, down Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the “survival of the fittest”?
Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionariesin China, 1905
Social Darwinist Thinking The Hierarchyof Race The White Man’sBurden: to civilize the world
2.Need for New Markets • Panic of 1893-1897- most Americans blamed on collapse of overbuilt RR’s & over speculation on Stock market. • Other structural problems existed: over built economy & insufficient market for goods. • 1870-1900- US exports went from $400 million to $1.5 Billion (but --European markets for US goods contracted)
EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Expansion and spreading our culture
Sec. of State James G. Blaine (2 times)- “Big Sister” policy;rally Latin America behind US policy & open Latin American markets to US. == 1889 *Pan-American Conference- (D.C.). Conflict 1889- US & German navies almost go to war over the Samoan Islands= 1899- islands divided= American Samoa. 1892- 2 American sailors killed in port of Valparaiso; US & Chile war averted when Chile agreed to pay an indemnity. 1893- US/ Canadian argument over seal hunting off coast of Alaska= resolved by arbitration. 1895-1896- Venezuela & Britain dispute over boundary between British Guiana & Venezuela= US Sec. of State & Pres. Cleveland invoked the Monroe Doctrine. Britain backed off because of threats in Germany & Boer War= new era “patting the eagle’s head” = (The Great Rapprochement) America & Latin America
Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
The Monroe Doctrine • Originally meant that the United States declared itself neutral in European wars and warned other nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere. • Later, the doctrine was interpreted to mean a more active role to protect the interests of the United States. IMPERIALISM Expanding U.S. Interests
Cartoon-US Expansion1 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS US goal was always expansion
1883- Congress set aside money to build a modern navy. Theodore Roosevelt & Henry Cabot Lodge(“jingoists”- extreme nationalists)- believed the earth belonged to the strong & fit- Darwinism applied to foreign policy. 1880’s Africa- partitioned by Europeans 1890’s Japan, Germany, Russia sought leaseholds in China. 1890 **Captain Alfred T. Mahan- wrote The Influence of SeaPower Upon History 1660-1783 = strong navy needed to control colonies; called for annexation of coaling bases in Caribbean & Pacific. Need for coaling stations around the world. 3. Jingoists- Nationalism
Military/Strategic Interests **Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of SeaPower on History: 1660-1783
Americans Desire Hawaii • 1820’s New England missionaries arrived • Way station & provision point of Yankee shippers, sailors, whalers. • Island ideal for growing sugar • 1840’s US warns other powers –hands off • 1875- US corporations dominated sugar trade • 1880- US companies in Hawaii tripled; sent sugar to US duty free. • 1887- US –Hawaiian agreement-- guaranteeing America the use of Pearl Harbor as a naval base. • 1888- US planters arranged overthrow of King Kalakaua= new gov’t .
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii • 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty • 1890 – McKinley Tariff • 1893 –American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
Hawaiians Weakened • Population decreased by 1/6 of its size at the time of first contact (due to disease from Old World) • American “sugar lords” imported Asian workers (China & Japan) to work on sugar cane fields & mill= end of 19th century= Asian immigrants outnumbered whites & Hawaiians. • 1890 McKinley Tariff- raised tariff = white planters want to be annexed by US. • 1891Queen Liliuokalani Assumed power; issued constitution giving her more power resisted= 1893 whites (assisted by US Marines) revolted • Planter effort was unauthorized-pushed by U.S. FOREIGN minister TO Hawaii (Stevens) “The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe…” & Sanford Dole
Treaty of Annexation was withdrawn by new President Grover Cleveland= annexation delayed 5 years. Queen Liliuokalani John L. Stevens- US Foreign Minister to Hawaii
Cubans Revolt Against Spain • 1894- US Tariff raised high duties on sugar=sugar production crippled. • 1895- Cubans revolt against Spanish rulers • Cuban “insurrectos” burned cane fields & dynamited passenger trains= threatened $50 Million US investments (annual trade of $100 million). • Cuba lay at the line of a hoped for Panama Canal • Spain sends Gen. Victoriano Weyler (“the Butcher”) • US newspapers printed sensational stories about Spanish atrocities= “yellow journalism” • William Randolph Hearst to Remington- “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war”
Spain controlled Cuba since 1500’s. • Cuban people were fighting a revolution against Spanish brutality • Cubans wanted their independence from Spain • 90 miles from U.S. • Protect our trade
*YELLOW JOURNALISM Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst • Both imperialists and wanted war with Spain. • Their “Yellow Press” propaganda led Americans to support war with Spain.
Yellow Journalism Pulitzer Hearst Searches were actually conducted by women
YELLOW JOURNALISM • How long are the Spaniards to drench Cuba with the blood and tears of her people? • How long is the peasantry of Spain to be drafted away to Cuba to die miserably in a hopeless war, that Spanish nobles and Spanish officers may get medals and honors? • How long shall old Cuban men and women and children be murdered by the score, the innocent victims of Spanish rage against the patriot armies they cannot conquer? • How long shall the sound of rifles in Castle Morro at sunrise proclaim that bound and helpless prisoners of war have been murdered in cold blood? yellow journalism
YELLOW JOURNALISM • How long shall Cuban women be the victims of Spanish outrages and lie sobbing and bruised in loathsome prisons? • How long shall women passengers on vessels flying the American flag be unlawfully seized, stripped and searched by brutal, jeering Spanish officers, in violation of the laws of nations and of the honor of the U.S.? • How long shall American citizens, arbitrarily arrested while on peaceful and legitimate errands, be immured in foul Spanish prisons without trial? • How long shall the U.S. sit idle and indifferent within sound and hearing or rapine and murder? • HOW LONG? yellow journalism
America Goes to War with Spain • Hearst published a private letter by Spanish minister to the US Enrique Dupuy de Lome= referred to Pres. McKinley as “weak” • 1898- US sent USS Maine to Havana Harbor- to evacuate US citizens. • Feb. 15,1898- USS Maine blew up in Havana Harbor= 260 US sailors killed. • 2 investigations: one by US Navy, one by the Spanish • 1898- US Navy concluded that the Maine exploded due to a Spanish mine
Yellow Press YELLOW JOURNALISM • USS Maine---260 US sailors killed • Spain accused of blowing up the Maine….. • Polarized Americans to support the war against Spain. • Hearst was heard to say, “Supply me with pictures and I’ll give you a war”.
USS Maine entering Havana Harbor USS Maine after the explosion
USS Maine USS MAINE
Yellow Press YELLOW JOURNALISM • Yellow Press • Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were popular newspaper editors trying to sell newspapers. • Expansionist’s war with Spain. • Hearst was heard to say, “Supply me with pictures and I’ll give you a war”.
The Spanish-American War • Spain agreed to end re-concentration camps set up by Gen. Weyler & an armistice with Cuban rebels • McKinley- did not want war with Spain, did not want Spain to remain in control of Cuba, did not want an independent Cuba. • McKinley criticized by jingoists like Theodore Roosevelt as “white livered” & “Wobbly Willie” • April 11, 1898- McKinley sent a war message to Congress to intervene to free oppressed Cubans. • *Teller Amendment- proclaimed that the US would give Cuba it’s independence once Spain was ousted
Major Military Events of the War • Feb. 25, 1898- Assistant Sec. of Navy Roosevelt ordered Commodore George Dewey (American Asiatic Squadron) to go to the Philippines. • May 1, 1898- Dewey & 6 US ships floated into Manila Bay; destroyed the Spanish fleet there (10 ships)=400 Spaniards killed/wounded= 0 US lives lost. • Dewey awaited US troops to invade the islands (captured Guam along the way) • August 13, 1898- US troops along with Filipino revolutionaries (led by Emilio Aguinaldo) captured Manila --Aguinaldo was forbidden to reclaim the city. • Sec. of State –John Hay remarked “It’s a splendid little war”. • July 7, 1898- US annexed Hawaii- territorial status by 1900.