Economic Causes Heavy taxes. Population decline. Social Causes Erosion of traditional values. Self-serving upper class. “Bread and circuses”. Political Causes Oppressive government. Corrupt officials. Divided empire. Military Causes Germanic invasions. Weakened Roman legions. Fall of Rome
Augustus • Augustus was the first emperor of Rome • His real name was Octavian but he was given the name 'Augustus' by the senate as an honour for his great achievements • He defeated Mark Anthony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra • With the senate of Rome, He created a new constitution for the great empire • Augustus built roads, aqueducts and buildingsfor Rome
Marcus Cocceis Nerva96 AD – 98 AD • Born November 8, 30 AD • Became emperor in September 18th, 96 AD • Since the prior emperor, Domitian, had no sucessors, this was the first time the senate had to decide who became the new emperor. Nerva was appointed as ruler in 96 AD. He was elected in his late sixties and was wise and couragous. Since he had no heir to the throne, he took it upon himself to appoint his next ruler. In 97 AD, he chose Marcus Ulpius Trajanus. Nerva’s became remembered for the nomination of Trajan to rule the empire. • Nerva died in 98 AD
Marcus Ulpius Trajanus98 AD- 117 AD • Born on September 18th, 53 AD • Became emperor on January 28th, 98 AD • Trajan was a man of character and who spent most of his life in the military service. He specialty was in battles and using strategy against the enemy. • New laws Trajan set • Senate must always be informed about what is going on • Sovereign’s right to rule was compatible with freedom for those who were ruled • No senators could be put to death • Financial Problems • During Trajan’s reign the treasury ran low and must be refilled. Most emperors would just put heavy taxation on the citizens, but Trajan instead took money from the luxury of his own household and public departments. He also suppressed monopolies which largely reduce corruption in the economy.
Marcus Ulpius Trajanus • Military Action • Campaign of Danube (101AD to 106AD) • 101 AD, Trajan organized first Dacian expedition • Forced his way through rough terrain and got past “iron gates”. • Captured the Dacian capital • 103 AD Trajan went to battle again • Destroyed the Dacian’s kingdom in 104 AD • Battle for Armenia (113 AD to 116 AD) • Trajan headed east to the Euphrates where the Parthians settled. • King Chosroes pleaded for peace but Romans took Armenia and Mesopotamia
Marcus Aurelius161 AD- 180 AD • Born April 26th, 121 AD • Became emperor in March 7th, 161 AD • Miliatry Action • War against Parthia • Roman victories at Dura Europa, Ctesiphon • First Marcomanni War • Marcus Aurelius defeats Marcomanni and Quadi by 174. • Second Marcomanni War • Marcus Aurelius advances to Bohemia and Carpathian mountains. There he dies. • Avidius Cassius • Roman general under Marcus Aurelius • he was sent to the East to counter the Parthian threat from 162 AD-165 AD. He defeated the Parthians, and was made by Aurelius the head of all military east of Egypt. • Later on, Cassius lead a revolt against Rome but was defeated
Lucius Aurelius Commodus180 AD- 192 AD • Born on august 31th, 161 AD • Became emperor in March 17th, 180 AD • Commodus began what is known as the downfall for Rome • Made peace with the bordering barbarians • Returned to Rome where he lived for the entertainment • Plots against were found out and suppressed • Commodus was strangled in his bed by a paid assassin in 192 AD
Constantine the Great • Constantine the great was the first Christian emperor of the Roman empire • He defeated all the other would-be emperors and re-united the empire, which had been divided between many rulers • He also decided to move the capital of the empire from Rome to a town called Byzantium, which he renamed after himself - Constantinopolis • He also called together many bishops for the Council of Nicaea at which the exact nature of the Christian religion was defined
Nero • Nero was crazy • He became emperor because his mother murdered his step-father, emperor Claudius • During his rule much of Rome burnt down in the Great Fire of Rome • After this he built himself a magnificent palace on the land cleared by the fire • There were rumours that he had started the fire himself, he blamed the Christians for it and then had many captured and thrown to the lions in the circus
Justinian • Justinian was considered the last great emperor • Western part of Rome had fell to the barbarians • His great generals Belisarius and Narses reconquered many parts of the empire • Manages to obtain even the city of Rome • Justinian also gathered all the roman laws and created a unified code of laws • These laws were known to set the basis for the western half of the world • He also built many great buildings in his capital, Constantinople • Justinian’s most well known work is the great church Santa Sophia, which today is the famous mosque 'Aya Sophia' in the Turkish city of Istanbul.
Early Politics & Economics • Two Systems • Civil Law. • Foreigners. • Law of Nations. • Roman citizenship. • Senate • 300 Patricians. • 2 Consuls. • Dictator. • Plebeians. • Tribunes. • Veto. • Trade Routes • Loot, taxes, commerce. • Latifundia. • Gap between rich and poor. • Virtues replaced.
Empire Politics & Economics • Augustus Foundation • Senate with civil service. • High-level jobs. • Self-government. • Economic Reforms • Census. • Postal Service. • New Coins. • Roads, temples, farmland. • Crisis • Emperors. • High taxes and bureaucracy. • Diocletian division.
Roman Religion • Early Republic • Gods and Goddesses. • Etruscans and Greeks. • Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Poseidon, Mars. • Feasts & Celebrations. • Temples. • Statues. • Festivals. • Early Empire • Christianity. • Jesus and his followers. • Expanding through Paul. • Persecution. • Nero and scapegoat.
509BC Roman Republic. 264-241BC Navy battles Carthage. Gained Sicily, Corsica, Sardina. 236BC Conquered Gauls in Po Valley. 218BC Hannibal invades during Punic Wars. 203BC Carthaginians defeated in Zama. Gained territories in Spain. 149BC Overtake Macedonia in third Macedonia War. 146BC Controlled Greeks. 133BC Kingdom of Pergamum given to Rome. 49BC Ceasar crosses Rubicon River. Civil War begins. 44BC Ceasar assasinated. 31BC Julius Caesar’s son Octavious defeats Atony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium. Annexation of Egypt. 29BC Pax Romana begins. 27BC Roman Republic ends. Empire begins under Octavious Augustus. Three Roman Legions slaughetered by Arminius. 25BC Celtic kingdom, Galatia join empire. 6BC Paphlagania joined empire. 9AD Varus legions destroyed in Germany. 41AD Claudius invades Britain in Battle of Medway. 66AD Jewish Revolt. Vespasian legions in Judaea. Josepheus surrenders. 69AD Civil War, fight for throne. 79-117AD Domitian built forts in Germany. 114AD Armenia became Roman province. 116AD Adiabene and Mesopotamia conquered. 117AD Trajan builds wall across N.Britain to protect frontier from Caledonia. 251AD Defeated by Goths. Took Balkans and Anatolia. 270-275AD Aurelian abandons Dacia to Germans. Empire divides. 392AD Christianity becomes official religion by Theodosius. 400AD Battle Huns and Germans. Alaric invades Italy. 410AD Lose British and Gaul assistance. Sacked by Alaric. 476AD Odoacer. Germanic leader seizes Rome. Timeline
Bibliography http://www.resourcesforhistory.com/map.htm#help http://www.personal.kent.edu/~bkharvey/roman/expansion/exprep.htm Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today.Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. p 128-151.