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From Empire to Independence 1750-1776

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  1. 6 From Empire to Independence 1750-1776

  2. From Empire to Independence1750-1776 • The Seven Years’ War in America • The Emergence of American Nationalism • “Save Your Money and Save Your Country” • From Resistance to Rebellion • Deciding for Independence • Conclusion

  3. Chaplain Jacob Duché leading the first prayer in the First Continental Congress at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, September 1774

  4. Chapter Focus Questions • What were the conflicts that led to the Seven Years’ War, and what were the outcomes for Great Britain, France, and the American Indians? • Why did American nationalism develop in the aftermath of the French and Indian War?

  5. Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) • What was Great Britain’s changing policy toward its North American colonies in the 1760s? • What were the assumptions of American republicanism? • How did the colonies attempt to achieve unity in their confrontation with Great Britain?

  6. North America and Philadelphia

  7. The First Continental Congress Begins to Shape a National Political Community • 1774: Philadelphia, First Continental Congress • 12 colonies met for seven weeks forging a community of national leaders. • Interests distinct from that of the mother country. • Patrick Henry: “I am not a Virginian but an American.”

  8. The Seven Years’ War in America

  9. Woodcut cartoon, created by Benjamin Franklin

  10. The Albany Congress of 1754 • The agenda included • Consideration of a collective colonial response to the conflict with New France and the Indians of the interior; • Negotiation of a settlement with the Iroquois Confederacy.

  11. The Albany Congress of 1754 (cont'd) • The Conference resulted in • The Iroquois leaving without an agreement; • Adoption of Benjamin Franklin’s Plan of Union, though this was rejected by colonial assemblies.

  12. France vs. Britain in America • Three points of contention between France and England for control of North America: • The North Atlantic Coast, guarded by the fort at Louisbourg and the mouth of the St. Lawrence • The border region from Niagara Falls to Lake Champlain, vital for the fur trade

  13. France vs. Britain in America (cont'd) • The Ohio country, the valley bisected by the Ohio River, and its Indian peoples

  14. MAP 6.1 The War for Empire in North America, 1754–1763

  15. Frontier Warfare • 1756: war between Britain and France • Early French victories in New York • British expelled French-speaking farmers of Acadia from their homes. • Many moved to Louisiana where they became known as “Cajuns.”

  16. Frontier Warfare (cont'd) • Anglo-French war also led to widespread Indian attacks on frontier settlements, killing thousands and throwing settlers into a panic.

  17. The Conquest of Canada • Prime Minister William Pitt committed to winning the war and eliminating all French competition • 1758 Easton Conference: Ohio Indians promised their lands would be protected, turning many frontier natives against the French • Over 50,000 British and colonial troops

  18. The Conquest of Canada (cont'd) • British forces captured Louisburg, the French forts on the New York border, Quebec, and lastly, Montreal.

  19. The death of General James Wolfe

  20. MAP 6.2 European Claims in North America, 1750 and 1763

  21. The Conquest of Canada • In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the French lost all its North American mainland possessions.

  22. A treaty between the Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo (western Iroquois) Indians and Great Britain, July 13, 1765

  23. The Struggle for the West • British policies shocked and threatened western Indians. • Revitalization movement • Ohio Indians and Neolin, the Delaware Prophet • Holy war to restore native lands and culture • Pontiac, Ottawa confederacy • Proclamation of 1763 confirmed promises of the Easton Conference

  24. The Struggle for the West (cont'd) • Colonists opposed Proclamation / westward migration continued • Concessions—Native anger and resentment

  25. The Emergence of American Nationalism

  26. A protest against the Stamp Act from newspaper editor William Bradford

  27. An American Identity • The Seven Years War affected the American colonists by • making them proud to be members of the British empire; • noting important contrasts between themselves and the British; • strengthening a sense of identity among the colonists. • A nationalist perspective emerged.

  28. Samuel Adams

  29. The Press, Politics, and Republicanism • The 1735 libel trial of New York City editor John Peter Zenger was a bold stroke for freedom of the press. • The weekly newspaper was an important means of intercolonial communication. • Newspapers became a lively means of public discourse.

  30. The Press, Politics, and Republicanism (cont'd) • The notion of republicanism emerged from warnings of government’s threats to liberty.

  31. The Sugar and Stamp Acts • The costs of the Seven Years War and the subsequent defense of the North American empire added to the huge government debt. • In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act to raise revenue from the colonies. • Colonial protest arose in the cities, especially Boston where a nonimportation movement soon spread to other cities.

  32. The Sugar and Stamp Acts (cont'd) • James Otis, Jr. developed the doctrine of no taxation without representation.

  33. The Stamp Act Crisis • Colonial concerns included the long-term constitutional implications regarding representation of the colonists in the British government. • Beginning with Virginia, nine colonies passed resolutions denouncing the Stamp Act.

  34. The Stamp Act Crisis (cont'd) • Boston emerged as a center of protest with attacks on offices and homes of British officials. • To counter the growing violence, the Sons of Liberty was formed to encourage more moderate forms of protest.

  35. MAP 6.3 Demonstrations against the Stamp Act, 1765

  36. The Stamp Act Crisis • British merchants worried about the effects of the growing non-importation movement petitioned Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. • In 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory Act, asserting control over the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.”

  37. “Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  38. British cartoon, “A Society of Patriotic Ladies,” ridiculed

  39. The Townshend Revenue Acts • In 1767, Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer • New revenue measure • import duties on lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea • Townshend believed Americans would not oppose “external” import taxes. • John Dickinson: Parliament had no right to tax goods to raise revenue on America.

  40. The Townshend Revenue Acts (cont'd) • Despite protests, very little sentiment for independence existed in America.

  41. An Early Political Boycott • In 1767, the Boston town meeting revived the tactic of nonimportation to oppose Townshend’s taxes • Other port cities responded with their own nonimportation campaigns. • Appeals to stimulate local industry had strong appeal in small towns and rural areas.

  42. An Early Political Boycott (cont.) • Colonial newspapers paid much attention to women supporting the boycott. • During 1769, all the colonies but New Hampshire adopted nonimportation legislation. • These efforts reduced colonial imports from Britain by 41 percent.

  43. The Massachusetts Circular Letter • Boston and Massachusetts were the center of the agitation over the Townshend Acts. • Samuel Adams drafted a circular letter denouncing the Revenue Acts and calling for the colonies to “harmonize with each other” in opposition.

  44. The Massachusetts Circular Letter (cont'd) • British efforts to suppress the circular letter failed and violence against British officials continued. • Rumors of mob rule and riots in Boston led to the British army occupying the city.

  45. The Boston Massacre • The British troops stationed in the colonies were a source of scorn and hostility. • Confrontations arose in New York City and Boston between colonists and British soldiers. • In Boston, competition between British troops and townsmen over jobs was a source of conflict.

  46. The Boston Massacre (cont.) • March 5, 1770 • Confrontation between British soldiers and a crowd ended in the Boston Massacre that left five dead • Parliament had already repealed most of the Revenue Acts, keeping the tea tax to save face.

  47. The Bostonians Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering

  48. Paul Revere’s version of the Boston Massacre

  49. From Resistance to Rebellion

  50. Committees of Correspondence • In the early seventies, several colonies established committees of correspondence to: • share information; • shape public opinion; and • build cooperation among the colonies.