Bell Work 10/3/2012 • What empire are we currently studying? • Where was the empire located? • Did you finish your graphic organizer? Grid from last Wednesday?
Byzantine Empire Preview • Politics: unity of Roman empire gave way to many weaker states, some evolved into modern nations, i.e. Britain and France. • Society: organized around system of personal loyalties known as feudalism • Technology/Developments: new weapons such as longbow & cannon. First university. Changes in architecture. • Culture: Great Schism will divide the Christian Church. Muslim and Christian armies fought the Crusades.
Building Directions: Use pgs 304-306 to complete the web diagram. Provide 1-2 facts for each circle. Code of Laws Life in Constantinople Justinian Trade Byzantine Empire Expansion/ Geography Seljuk Turks New Heights. New Problems. Church Split
Justinian—emperor ofEastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire. 527-565 • 2 major accomplishments • Re-conquered lands of the Roman Empire • Simplified the Roman Code of Laws, known as The Body of Civil Law
Byzantine Empire • Justinian’s conquests left Empire in trouble. • Too much territory to protect. • Poor economy. • Population declined due to plague. • Renewed threats along frontiers—such as Arab Empire.
Reading • Circle any vocabulary words you do not know. • Underline key phrases that are written/spoken to motivate the readers. • Take notes in the margins about the storyline—anything that stands out.
Socratic Circle Explanation Step 1: Complete reading on the ½ sheet. Rank your five priorities. Come up with a reason or two for each selection. Step 2: Inner circle will discuss their rankings for 10 minutes. --After discussing for 10 minutes, inner circle will summarize what they discussed. Step 3: --Outer circle offers input on the inner circle’s job of discussing—comment on human behavior, positives/negatives. --Outer circle raters inner circles job. 1-10 scale. --Outer circle sets goals for what they will accomplish/discuss during their time as the inner circle. Step 4: Outer circle becomes the inner circle and repeats step 2. Step 5: New outer circle comments on the inner circle’s job and repeats step 3.
Byzantine Empire • Capital Constantinople was medieval Europe’s greatest center of commerce, trade, and architecture. • Religion—Christian. • Emperor’s power was absolute. • Political control over state and church.
Rest of Europe? West of Byzantine Empire… • Frankish Empire to the west of Byzantine Empire. • Charlemagne named Frankish emperor—revived idea of an empire. • Proved that a strong ruler=strong empire. • Christians in Europe going for Holy Land in Arab Empire
811 A.D.Red: Frankish Empire. Blue: Byzantine Empire. Green: Islam Empire
Crusades Questions • Read pgs. 306-308 and tell me the • Who? • Why? • When? • Where? • How?
The Crusades 1096-1272
Crusades: WHO? • European Christians trying to defeat Muslims living in the “Holy Land” • Pope played an active role engaging Christians in battle.
Crusades: WHY? • Originally just to fight off Seljuk Turks, but Pope Urban II saw opportunity to… • Regain Holy Land from Muslims
Crusades: WHEN? • When Byzantine Emperor Alexus I asked Europeans for help against Seljuk Turks. • 1st crusade. 1096-1099 2nd. 1147-1149 3rd. 1189-1192 4th. 1202-1204 • And several other campaigns, off and on, through 1272.
Crusades: WHERE? • From Europe to Holy Land.
Crusades: HOW? • Was a “HOLY” war. • Pope said those who volunteered will be forgiven of their sins. Gave people a reason to fight…“it’s okay, it’s a holy war.” • People were motivated by religion on both sides—Christians and Muslims.
Tuesday, September 25 • BW—Go over Mongols Reading • CW—Pass back papers & progress reports. • Impact of Arab Empire, Byzantine Empire, Crusades, and Mongols. • Discuss how to write a 5 sentence history paragraph. • Start working on Test Review. • HW—Unit 3 Test this Friday!
Impact of Arab Empire. Byzantine Empire.Crusades.Mongols. Writing a five sentence history essay with thesis, 3 supporting facts, and conclusion.
The question you will answer. • What impact did the (one of the following) have in history? • Arab Empire • Byzantine Empire • Crusades • Mongols • For example. What impact did the Arab Empire have in history?
Start with 3 reasons. • You need three reasons to answer your question. • For instance: What impact did the Roman Empire have in history? • Republic Government • Spread Christianity • Roman Law
Form a thesis statement • Take your three reasons and answer the question in a thesis statement. • For instance… • The Roman Empire impacted history by creating the Republic Government, spreading Christianity, and providing the Roman Law.
Organization of the Essay • Five complete sentences 1st sentence—thesis statement 2nd sentence—explaining your first reason 3rd sentence—explaining your second reason 4th sentence—explaining your third reason 5th sentence—restating the three reasons in a conclusion sentence
2nd sentence • The Roman Republic provided the idea that people elect officials to represent them in the government.
3rd sentence • The Roman Empire allowed for the spread of Christianity by ways of Paul, who wrote about Jesus to various areas in the empire.
4th sentence • People being innocent until proven guilty was a concept created through Roman Law and is still present in the United States.
Take a look at sentence 1-4… Thesis statement and three sentences to explain the reasons. The Roman Empire impacted history by creating the Republic Government, spreading Christianity, and providing the Roman Law. The Roman Republic provided the idea that people elect officials to represent them in the government. The Roman Empire allowed for the spread of Christianity by ways of Paul, who wrote about Jesus to various areas in the empire. People being innocent until proven guilty was a concept created through Roman Law and is still present in the United States.
5th sentence. The conclusion • Should restate the thesis. Start by stating the three reasons and then refer back to the question. • In conclusion, the Roman Republic, spread of Christianity, and Roman Law are all ways the Roman Empire impacted history.
Your five sentence essay… 1The Roman Empire impacted history by creating the Republic Government, spreading Christianity, and providing the Roman Law. 2The Roman Republic provided the idea that people elect officials to represent them in the government. 3The Roman Empire allowed for the spread of Christianity by ways of Paul, who wrote about Jesus to various areas in the empire. 4People being innocent until proven guilty was a concept created through Roman Law and is still present in the United States. 5In conclusion, the Roman Republic, spread of Christianity, and Roman Law are all ways the Roman Empire impacted history.
Consequences of the Crusades • Decline of papal (pope) prestige • Decline in the power of nobles (vassals) • Decrease in Byzantine power • Increase in religious intolerance (between Muslims and Christians) • Expansion of trade by Italian cities
The Middle Ages 5th-15th century A.D. a.k.a. Medieval Times
Feudalism Became the basis for government.
Feudalism • Political, social, and military system • Wealth based on owning/controlling land • Heart of the system is agreement between lord and vassal—loyalty to one’s lord. • Emphasis is on local protection, government and self sufficiency.
Social Hierarchy of Feudalism • Loyalty to lord is feudalism’s chief virtue. King Lord/Royal Vassal Knight/Vassal Serf/Peasant Read page 292. Use page 296 to describe the relationships of the Feudal System.
Vocabulary of Feudal System • King:owns and controls all of the land. • Lord/Royal Vassal:received land (fief) from the King, served king militarily, ruled over their land. • Knight/Vassal: received land (fief) from the lord, served lord militarily, provided for and controlled the serfs. • Serf/Peasant: not free, but could not be bought, sold, or traded. Could not leave the land they were born to work on.
Manorial System • Economic side of feudalism • Three groups of people during Middle Ages: • Those who fought (the vassals/nobles) • Those who prayed (men/women of the Church) • Those who worked (the serfs/peasants) • Vassals (nobles) and church leaders part of the feudal system—the political system • Serfs/peasants were the heart of the economic system—worked the manor..the land.
Complications of Feudalism • The feudal contract—set of unwritten rules to determine relationship between lord and vassal. • Vassal gave military service for ~40 days a year. • Vassal advised lords and had financial obligations. • Lord and Vassal traded land for protection.
Trade and Cities • Revival in trade. • Trade Fairs became center of economics. • Market economy. • Growth of cities. • Cities and towns were dirty, smelly, crowded, polluted, and unsanitary. Fires were of great concern. • Merchants and artisans settle where they can sell..others follow (guilds).
Guilds—business associations organized by craftspeople. • Set quality standards, methods of production, and fixed prices for finished products. • Apprentice…journeymen..masterpiece..MASTER.
Universities • 10-12th centuries—3 universities (Bologna, Paris, and Oxford). • By 1500-- 80 universities throughout Europe. • For Bachelor of Arts--Studied..grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. • For Master of Arts-- law, medicine, theology • Theology: study of religion and God
Scholasticism—theological thought influenced by faith and reason. • Works of Aristotle made way to western Europe • rational thought—not faith—to explain life and life’s happenings. • Saint Thomas Aquinas: logical method of intellectual investigation. Goal was to find truth from reason AND faith.