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Egypt. Arabic. Egypt. Tell me what you are thinking, feeling, hearing, smelling, and tasting. Egyptian pound is divided into 100 piastres. One piastre is orignally a silver coin of U.S. dollar size. Cairo. Desert: hot, dry summers; moderate winters. 83,000,000. Egyptian pound.

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Tell me what you are thinking, feeling, hearing, smelling, and tasting.

Egyptian pound is divided into 100 piastres. One piastre is orignally a silver coin of U.S. dollar size


Desert: hot, dry summers; moderate winters


Egyptian pound

President Mohamed Morsy

Modern Standard Arabic

Bilady, Bilady, Bilady

Money has two faces—one in Arabic and one in English

  • Was one of the world’s greatest civilizations
  • 7th Century: Arabs introduced Islam and the Arabic language
  • 1869: completion of the Suez Canal made Egypt an important world transportation hub
  • 1882: Britain seized control
  • 1952: Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy
  • Egypt has the fastest growing population in the Arab world

Mount Catherine

Aswan High Dam, constructed in 1971

Lake Nasser

Suez Canal

Nile River

  • Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan
  • About three times the size of New Mexico
  • Mount Catherine is the highest point
  • Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
  • Divided into Upper and Lower Egypt
Only 2.92% of the land is arable
  • Natural Hazards: droughts, earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, khamsin (hot, driving windstorms in the spring), dust storms, sandstorms
traditional clothing
Traditional Clothing
  • There are a variety of different clothing styles in Egypt

Members of the upper classes in cities adopted the clothing of their conquerors—Ottoman Turks and European


Kaftan: full length garment like a coat with long, wide sleeves, that is often striped. Open in the front and often bound by a hizan (fabric belt)

Jubbah: a long, wide sleeved gown which reached to the feet and was buttoned half way down

Farmers (fellahin) wear gallibayas (a long shirt)

Binish: a cloth overcoat with wide sleeves


Sserual: trousers, sometimes worn under the gallebaya

Kamis: a wider version of the gallibaya

Eri: a gallibaya with a looser fit under the arms


Melaya luf: a large rectangular wrap worn for modesty, warmth, and used to carry things

Peasant woman wear a gallebaya outdoors, but in the city gallebaya are worn only indoors

Yelek: a woman’s version of the kaftan. It is lined, with the neck open to just below the collar bone and buttoned or laced along side seams for shaping. There is a high side slip over trousers, and girded with shawl. A shirt is worn under it, and a djubbeh or binnish over it

In public, women wear a wide dress called a tob sebleh

male headwear
Male Headwear

Different head coverings tell a lot about the wearer’s location in time and space, status, and religion

’iqal: draped headscarf and band

Taqiyah: skull cap


Turban (cloth shaal)

female headwear
Female Headwear

Bedouin thobes: sleeve worn over head

Headscarves (khimar, hattah, zurband, shash, qun’ah, mandil): a rectangular scarf which can be pinned around the face, wrapped around the head, held by a headband, or formed into a bag

Some women will pull part of their other clothing over their head as headwear

Burnous: hood pulled over head

  • Equipment:
  • Balls
  • Board Games
  • Children’s Toys
  • Chariots
  • Simple and composite bows, with arrows, quivers, etc.
  • Throwing Sticks
  • Harpoons
  • Fish Hooks
  • Venues:
  • Tracks
  • Archery Sites
  • Ponds for Swimming
  • Hunting Preserves
board games
Board Games

Seega: Two player game played on a 5x5 board, with stones or marbles. Each player has 12 pieces, which are placed on the board 2 at a time.

Senet Board Game: means game of passing. One of the oldest known board games in the world (3100 BC). Game board is a grid of 30 squares, arranged in three rows of ten. There are two sets of pawns (at least 5 of each). Actual rules are still debated. A board for this game was found in the tomb of King Tut.

Modern Culture: Played in Lost. Video Game Tomb Raider: The Last Revelation


Mancala: One of the oldest games in the world. There are over 200 versions. A count and capture game.

Mehen (snake): Board depicts a coiled snake whose body is divided into rectangular spaces. Game is traditionally played with lion or lioness shaped game pieces, in sets of 3 or as many as 6


Thutmose III: Commonly called the Napoleon of Ancient Egypt. He never lost a battle. A national hero, respected through Egyptian history. Set up several obelisks (one was moved to Central Park in New York).

Cleopatra VII: Queen of Egypt. Her family ruled Egypt for more than 100 years before she was born. Inspired the story Antony and Cleopatra by Shakespeare. Last ruler of Macedonian dynasty. Julius Caesar fell in love with her.

Tutankhamen: Became a pharaoh at the age of 9. Known as King Tut. Too young to rule, so his Uncle Ay ruled for him while he was a boy. Died mysteriously and suddenly at 18.

ancient egyptian architecture
Ancient Egyptian Architecture
  • Popular building materials: sun-baked mud bricks and stone (limestone, sandstone, granite)
  • Wood was difficult to find
  • Stone usually reserved for tombs and temples
  • Bricks used for royal palaces, fortresses, walls, and minor buildings
ancient egyptian architecture1
Ancient Egyptian Architecture
  • Many Ancient Egyptian towns have disappeared because of the rising and flooding caused by the Nile River
  • Current understanding of Egyptian architecture is based primarily on religious monuments
Much of the ornamentation is symbolic—scarab, sacred beetle, solar disk, vulture, palm leaves, papyrus plants, lotus flowers
  • Hieroglyphs means “sacred drawings” in Greek
  • Believed to date back as far as 3000 BC
  • This system of writing has undergone many changes over time
  • 6 primary periods when hieroglyphics were used
  • Last official known use of hieroglyphics was around 500 AD
  • There were at least 700 symbols used and each symbol had more than one use
Meaning of hieroglyphics could be phonetic or representative of the symbol
  • 1798: Napoleon discovered the Rosetta Stone
  • Hieroglyphics were important in portraying the history of the Egyptian nation, especially the accomplishments and feats of the pharaohs
  • Early Egyptian artists learned skills from West Asian artists
  • Learned how to make glass and metal, how to use pottery wheel, and how to carve large stone statues
  • Wall paintings were common, especially for Pharaohs
  • Early art characterized by lack of linear perspective (flat space)
Objects typically do not decrease in size as they increase in distance, and there is little shading to indicate depth
  • People and objects commonly drawn using profiles. People in art never face forward, and no one knows why
daily life rural
Daily Life: Rural
  • Villages, commonly made of mud-brick houses
  • Most people work as farmers, growing barley, beans, fruit, cotton, and lentils
daily life city
Daily Life: City
  • People live in apartment buildings made of steel, stone, and glass. Only the extremely wealthy can afford houses.
  • Men and women typically live at home until they get married
  • Some people work in factories producing: aluminum, cement, chemicals, fertilizers, food products, iron and steel, textiles
Many children attend school Saturday through Thursday (6 hours), as Friday is observed as a day of rest
  • 12 years of formal education, which is technically free, but severely underfunded
  • At the end of high school, all students take a test similar to the SAT, to determine where they will attend university
  • Many children do not complete school or go on to college, but rather learn a trade or apprenticeship in business
Education comes primarily from the family, as this is where they learn societal values
  • Family is very important
  • Algebra
  • Alkaline
  • Chemistry
  • Soda
  • Zero
  • Admiral
  • Carafe
  • Gauze
  • Ream
  • Average
  • Cotton
  • Safari

Hal tatakallamu alloghah alenjileziah?: Do you speak English?

Fadlek (m), Fadleki (f): Please

Shokran: Thank You

Al’afw: You’re Welcome

Kam howa thamanoh?: How much is this?

La afham!: I don’t understand!

Laa: No

Na’am: Yes

Ayna Al Hammam?: Where is the bathroom