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Processes of Lithosphere. Lithosphere. Rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet On earth, comprises the crust and the upper mantle. The Rock Cycle. Thinking about relationships among the major rock groups. Major Rock Groups. Igneous Formed from a melt (molten rock)

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lithosphere
Lithosphere
  • Rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet
    • On earth, comprises the crust and the upper mantle
the rock cycle

The Rock Cycle

Thinking about relationships among the major rock groups

major rock groups
Major Rock Groups
  • Igneous
    • Formed from a melt (molten rock)
    • Plutonic (intrusive):slow cooling and crystallization
    • Volcanic (extrusion): quick cooling at the surface
  • Sedimentary
    • Formed at the Earth’s surface
  • Metamorphic
    • Changed by pressure, temperature and fluids.
slide7

IGNEOUS

Crystallization

MAGMA

slide8

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

MAGMA

slide9

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

MAGMA

slide10

Weathering

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide11

Weathering

  • Chemical – changing composition (acid rain)
  • Physical – Breaking apart rocks, moving soils, etc
  • Soil is result of weathering of rocks and includes weathered particles
slide12

SEDIMENT

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide13

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide14

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Crystallization

Uplift

MAGMA

slide15

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

slide16

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

Can you see

any shortcuts?

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Melting

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

slide17

Erosion

SEDIMENT

Weathering

Transport

Deposition

Volcanic

IGNEOUS

Plutonic

SEDIMENTARY

Increased P&T

METAMORPHIC

Crystallization

Melting

Burial

Uplift

MAGMA

slide18

In Conclusion…

  • The rock cycle demonstrates the relationships among the three major rock groups
  • It is powered by the interior heat of the Earth
  • The energy from the sun
  • It involves processes on the Earth’s surface as well as the Earth’s interior.
structure of the earth
Structure of the Earth
  • The Earth is made up of 3 main layers:
    • Core
    • Mantle
    • Crust

Mantle

Outer core

Inner core

Crust

the crust
The Crust
  • This is where we live!
  • The Earth’s crust is made of:

Continental Crust- buoyant (less dense than oceanic crust)

Oceanic Crust- dense (sinks under continental crust)

slide23
If you look at a map of the world, you may notice that some of the continents could fit together like pieces of a puzzle.
plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics
  • The Earth’s crust is divided into 12 major plates which are moved in various directions.
  • This plate motion causes them to collide, pull apart, or scrape against each other.
  • Each type of interaction causes a characteristic set of Earth structures or “tectonic” features.
  • The word, tectonic, refers to the deformation of the crust as a consequence of plate interaction.
what are tectonic plates made of
What are tectonic plates made of?
  • Plates are made of rigid lithosphere.

The lithosphere is made up of the crust and the upper part of the mantle.

plate movement
Plate Movement
  • “Plates” of lithosphere are moved around by the underlying hot mantle convection cells
slide28
Divergent

Convergent

Transform

Three types of plate boundary

slide29
Spreading ridges

As plates move apart new material is erupted to fill the gap

Divergent Boundaries

slide30

Iceland: An example of continental rifting

  • Iceland has a divergent plate boundary running through its middle
slide31

Convergent Boundaries

  • There are three styles of convergent plate boundaries
    • Continent-continent collision
    • Continent-oceanic crust collision
    • Ocean-ocean collision
slide32

Continent-Continent Collision

  • Forms mountains,e.g. European Alps, Himalayas
slide34

Continent-Oceanic Crust Collision

  • Called SUBDUCTION
  • Area is called the subduction zone
slide35

Transform Boundaries

  • Where plates slide past each other

Above: View of the San Andreas transform fault

what s the connection

Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics…

…what’s the connection?

slide38

Pacific Ring of Fire

Volcanism is mostly focused at plate margins

slide39
- Subduction - Rifting - Hotspots

Volcanoes are formed by:

subduction
Subduction
  • Form new melt that will rise through the crust to be erupted at the surface
rifting
Rifting
  • Form new melt that will rise through the crust to be erupted at the surface
hot spots
Hot Spots
  • Does not occur along a plate boundary.
  • Form in the middle of tectonic plates
volcanic eruptions
Volcanic Eruptions
  • Pyroclastic Flow – cloud of ash and debris
    • Travel at hundreds of mph
    • Hundreds of degrees
volcanic eruptions1
Volcanic Eruptions
  • Lahar – mud flows which are very destructive to landscape
volcanic eruptions2
Volcanic Eruptions

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UK--hvgP2uY

  • “Ash” emitted includes small stones
  • Very dense
  • Chokes life
  • Blots out sunlight
  • Causes wide range temperature drops
what s the connection1

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics…

…what’s the connection?

slide47
As with volcanoes, earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the globe
  • At the boundaries between plates, friction causes them to stick together. When built up energy causes them to break, earthquakes occur.

Figure showing the distribution of earthquakes around the globe

where do earthquakes form
Where do earthquakes form?

Figure showing the tectonic setting of earthquakes

fault lines
Fault Lines
  • Strike – slip
  • Reverse
  • Normal
earthquake anatomy
Earthquake Anatomy
  • Focal point – where the actual earth quake originated underground
  • Epicenter – location of earth quake on earth’s surface
    • Above the focal point
earthquake anatomy1
Earthquake Anatomy
  • P Waves (primary) – waves which travel fastest, first, and moves through any material
    • Reach seismographs
    • Moves land back and forth
  • S Waves (secondary) – actual surface waves which travel slower and only moves through solids
    • Moves land up and down

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/interactive/4403/primary-and-secondary-waves

results
Results..
  • Land destruction/alteration
  • Fire (breaking of gas and power lines)
  • Buildings destroyed
  • Tsunami’s
tsunami
Tsunami
  • “Harbor Wave”