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The Lithosphere of Earth. Igneous Processes and Volcanic Activity 1. Why study? • Thermal state • Thermal history • Composition of interior • Geothermal / Hazards • Comparative planetology 2. Volcanism and plate boundaries • Divergent

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the lithosphere of earth
The Lithosphere of Earth
  • Igneous Processes and Volcanic Activity

1. Why study?

• Thermal state

• Thermal history

• Composition of interior

• Geothermal / Hazards

• Comparative planetology

2. Volcanism and plate boundaries

• Divergent

- Continental breakup (Flood basalts)

- Mid-ocean ridge

• Convergent

- Domes, flows, explosive, composite volcanoes

• Intraplate Volcanism

- Strombolian style

- Hawaiian style

the lithosphere of earth volcanism
The Lithosphere of Earth - Volcanism

Strombolian

Hawaiian

Plinian

volcanic styles
Volcanic Styles

Plinian Activity

Strombolian Activity

Produces turbulent, buoyant cloud,

Rises to great heights

Hawaiian Activity

Spatter Cone

Cinder Cone

Atmosphere sucked in, heated

Exit velocity high

Bubble Rise Rate > Magma Rise Rate

Cloud collapses to pyroclastic flows

Dome Growth

Degasses

Low viscosity gas-clast mixture

Pressure greatly exceeds atmospheric pressure

Fracture & Growth

Magma Rise Rate > Gas Rise Rate

Brittle lid

Viscous gas-rich magma