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The Lithosphere

The Lithosphere

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The Lithosphere

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  1. The Lithosphere Ms. Woodard

  2. Day 1 • Objective: • I can explain how the Earth is structured • I can explain how the material of earth is changed

  3. Layers of the Earth • Defined by composition • 3 Major Zones • ___________ • ___________ • ___________

  4. The Crust • Thin, rocky outer layer • Either ________ or ________________ • Oceanic is 7-km thick • Continental is 8-75 km thick

  5. The Mantle • 82% of Earth’s volume • 2890-km thick • _________________________________________ • __________________________________

  6. The Core • Composed of an _______________ • Extreme ________ found at the ______

  7. Layers Based on Physical Properties • ______________ • Crust and upper-most mantle • ________________ • 100-km thick • _______________ • Below the Lithosphere • Soft, comparatively weak layer • ___________________

  8. Outer Core • ___________ • 2260-km thick • ___________ flow creates Earth’s magnetic field • Inner Core • _____________ • Radius of 1220-km • High ____________ • High ____________ • Mostly __________

  9. What is a ROCK? • Solid mass of ________ or mineral matter that naturally occurs as part of our planet • Three types • _______________ • _______________ • _______________

  10. Types of Rocks • ________________ • Forms when lava or magma cools • ________________ • When existing rocks are broken down into pieces then compacted and cemented together • ________________ • When existing rocks are changed by heat and pressure

  11. What is the ROCK CYCLE? • Origin of the three basic rocks and interrelatedness of Earth’s materials and processes

  12. Rock Cycle

  13. DAY 2 • Objective: • I can explain about the theory of plate tectonics • I can describe plate interactions

  14. What is Continental Drift? • Proposed by_______ ___________ • Stated that the continents had once been joined to form a _________________ • Supercontinent was called __________

  15. What did the Theory Say? • Occurred ________ years ago • Pangaea broke apart ___________ years ago • Continents “_______” (moved) to present positions • Continents “_______” through the oceans • North America and Africa split __________years ago

  16. Evidence of Continental Drift • __________ look like they fit together • Same fossil organisms found on __________ _____________ • Several __________ end at one coastline, only to reappear on a land mass across the ocean • Ancient Climates relate

  17. The Theory of Plate Tectonics • Earth’s outer shell consists of ________ ______ • Plates interact in various ways when they move

  18. Plate Boundary Activities • _____________ • _____________ • _____________ • _____________

  19. Earth’s Major Plates • Top 7 • African • Antarctic • Eurasian • Australian-Indian • North American • Pacific • Southern American • Other Plates • Arabian • Caribbean • Cocos • Nazca • Phillippine • Scotia

  20. DAY 3 • Objective • I can explain how the plates interact with each other

  21. Types of Plate Boundaries • ________ Boundary • ________ Boundary • ______________ Boundary

  22. Divergent Plate Boundary • When two plates _____ _________ • Also called spreading centers • New crust is created (mainly seafloor) • Known as ______ _______ __________ • Causes ___________ and __________ (on continents)

  23. Convergent Plate Boundary • Two places move towards each other • 3 versions • __________________ • __________________ • __________________

  24. Oceanic-Continental Convergent Boundary • ____________goes beneath the ________________ • Causes • __________ zones • Trenches • Continental Volcanic arcs (ex: The Andes)

  25. Vocabulary • ____________ – sites of high rates of volcanism, earthquakes, and mountain building • ____________- chain of volcanoes positioned in an arc shape

  26. Continental-Continental Convergent Boundary • Two plates ___________ plates collide • Causes Mountains to forms • Ex: Appalachians, Himalayas, Alps

  27. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergent Boundary • One _________ plate goes beneath another _________ plate • Causes Volcanic Island Arc • Ex: Aleutian Islands

  28. Transform Fault Plate Boundary • Two plates _____ past each other • No __________ or _____________of lithosphere • Causes Earthquakes • Ex: San Francisco

  29. DAY 4 • Objective: • I can explain how faults differ • I can explain the relation between boundaries and plate tectonics

  30. What Causes Plate Movement? • _______________ • The circulation of magma that pushes & pulls plates • Driving Force is _________

  31. What is a Fault? • ________ in Earth where movement has taken place • Most times near Plate Boundaries

  32. Parts of a Fault • _____________ • Rock above the fault line • ____________ • Rock below the fault line

  33. What are the types of Faults? • ________ • ________ • ________ • ________

  34. Types of Faults • _____________ • Occurs when the hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall block • _______________ • Occurs when the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block

  35. ______________ • A reverse fault with dips of less than 45 degrees • ________________ • Movement is horizontal and parallel trend of the fault surface

  36. Evidence of Plate Tectonics • ______________ • Most persuasive evidence • Ancient magnetism found in the rocks • Records show a shift in the poles

  37. _________________ • Connection between deep-focus earthquakes and ocean trenches • _______________ • Young rocks are near ocean ridge crest • Oldest rocks are near the continental margins

  38. ________________ • A concentration of heat in the mantle capable of producing magma, which rises to Earth’s surface • Supports that the plates move over Earth’s surface • Ex: Hawaiian Island Chain