WWI. "The Great War" The War to End all Wars. 1914-1918. Great Britain, Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, and Russia were all important players in WWI. Alliances. By mid-August 1914 the Central Powers primarily of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
"The Great War"
The War to End all Wars
Great Britain, Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, and Russia were all important players in WWI
The Russian Revolution Changed Russia from a Monarchy to a Communist Dictatorship. The Czar was removed from power and Lenin became the Father of Communism in Russia
When the WWI starts, everyone believes that it will be over by Christmas. It would last 6 to 12 weeks
Everyone was horribly wrong—WWI lasted 4 years and became a war of Attrition.
WWI turns out to be a very different kind of war than in the past. Why is this statement true and how does time play a role in how the war evolves.
Prominent Americans such as pacifist reformer Jane Addams and Senator Robert La Follette spoke out against the war.
Some Americans Speak Out
The Supreme Court also struggled to interpret the acts.
In one case, Charles Schenck, an official of the American Socialist Party, organized the printing of 15,000 leaflets opposing the war and was convicted of violating the Espionage Act.
He challenged the conviction in the Supreme Court, but the Court upheld his conviction, limiting free speech during war.
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. wrote the Court’s unanimous decision, stating that some things said safely in peacetime are dangerous to the country during wartime.Opponents Go to the Supreme Court
U.S. was a Neutral Country when WWI began.
The sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmermann Note caused the U.S. to join the Allied Powers during WWI.
The sinking of the Lusitania killed 128 Americans. It was attacked by German U-Boats
The coded telegram from Germany to Mexico, calling for Mexico to attack the U.S.
Body of an allied soldier lies in the road. Rats and other vermin quickly devoured any exposed flesh.
Soldiers often faced the problems of rats, lice, and disease in the trenches.
The body of a German soldier surfaces with the spring thaw. The human carnage was so great that bodies were often buried many times only to be blown back out by constant bombardment.
- It was the thing to do
- a War to end all wars
- sense of pride in your country
I. WWI turned out to be very different from what everyone thought it was going to be like
A) Everyone expected a short, bloodless war (very few people killed or wounded)
B) The war lasted over 4 years and cost the lives of 8-12 million soldiers and was fought on 2 “fronts” .
C) The generals thought that it would be a war of fast moving armies, but instead it turned out to be a war of ATTRITION (who could kill more of the enemy)
D) Trench warfare became the military strategy of WWI [latrines, rats, mustard gas, no man’s land]
II. The war was the first in which the Industrial Revolution became an important factor.
A) Modern science and technology produced weapons of great destruction and killing power (the machine gun, artillery, airplane, submarine, poison gas, the tank)
B) The nation(s) with the greatest resources will win the war
C) It was the first world war, because so many nations were involved.
III. The outcome of the war would have great importance, because it would lay the foundation for the causes of WWII
Battle of the Somme
Comprising the main Allied attack on the Western Front during 1916, the Battle of the Somme is famous chiefly on account of the loss of 58,000 British troops (one third of them killed) on the first day of the battle, 1 July 1916, which to this day remains a one-day record. The attack was launched upon a 30 kilometre front, from north of the Somme river between Arras and Albert, and ran from 1 July until 18 November, at which point it was called off.
During this battle, French and British forces were able to upset the Germans plans for a quick and decisive victory. 250,000 French casualties, German casualties were estimated to be about the same.
Paris Taxis bring 6,000 French reserve troops to the front lines to hold the Germans back
The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli from April 1915 to January 1916 during the First World War. A joint British and French operation was mounted in order to eventually capture the Ottoman capital of Istanbul (at that point Constantinople). The attempt failed, with heavy casualties on both sides.
Australians resting up in a dug-out are sheltered from shelling 15 feet underground
No Man’s Land
Gassed! Allied soldiers help each other to the infirmary after suffering the blinding effects of chlorine gas.
Diseases such as trench fever (an infection caused by louse faeces), trench nephritis (an inflammation of the kidneys), and trench foot (the infection and swelling of feet exposed to long periods of dampness and cold, sometimes leading to amputation) became common medical problems, and caused significant losses of manpower.